Marengo J.A.,National Institute for Space Research |
Alves L.M.,National Institute for Space Research |
Soares W.R.,National Institute for Space Research |
Rodriguez D.A.,National Institute for Space Research |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Climate | Year: 2013
Two simultaneous extreme events affected tropical South America to the east of the Andes during the austral summer and fall of 2012: a severe drought in Northeast Brazil and intense rainfall and floods in Amazonia, both considered records for the last 50 years. Changes in atmospheric circulation and rainfall were consistent with the notion of an active role of colder-than-normal surface waters in the equatorial Pacific, with above-normal upward motion and rainfall in western Amazonia and increased subsidence over Northeast Brazil. Atmospheric circulation and soil moisture anomalies in the region contributed to an intensified transport of Atlantic moisture into the western part of Amazonia then turning southward to the southern Amazonia region, where the Chaco low was intensified. This was favored by the intensification of subtropical high pressure over the region, associated with an anomalously intense and northward-displaced Atlantic high over a relatively colder subtropical South Atlantic Ocean. This pattern observed in 2012 was not found during other wet years in Amazonia such as 1989, 1999, and 2009. This suggests La Niña as the main cause of the abundant rainfall in western Amazonia from October to December, with wet conditions starting earlier and remaining until March 2012, mostly in northwestern Amazonia. The anomalously high river levels during the following May-July were a consequence of this early and abundant rainy season during the previous summer. In Northeast Brazil, dry conditions started to appear in December 2011 in the northern sector and then extended to the entire region by the peak of the rainy season of February-May 2012. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.
Dewitte B.,LEGOS IRD |
Vazquez-Cuervo J.,NASA |
Goubanova K.,LEGOS IRD |
Goubanova K.,French National Center for Space Studies |
And 11 more authors.
Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography | Year: 2012
The tropical Pacific variability has experienced changes in its characteristics over the last decades. In particular, there is some evidence of an increased occurrence of El Niño events in the central Pacific (a.k.a. 'Central Pacific El Niño' (CP El Niño) or 'El Niño Modoki'), in contrast with the cold tongue or Eastern Pacific (EP) El Niño which develops in the eastern Pacific. Here we show that the different flavours of El Niño imply a contrasted Equatorial Kelvin Wave (EKW) characteristic and that their rectification on the mean upwelling condition off Peru through oceanic teleconnection is changed when the CP El Niño frequency of occurrence increases. The Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis product is first used to document the seasonal evolution of the EKW during CP and EP El Niño. It is shown that the strong positive asymmetry of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) is mostly reflected into the EKW activity of the EP El Niño whereas during CP El Niño, the EKW is negatively skewed in the eastern Pacific. Along with slightly cooler conditions off Peru (shallow thermocline) during CP El Niño, this is favourable for the accumulation of cooler SST anomalies along the coast by the remotely forced coastal Kelvin wave. Such a process is observed in a high-resolution regional model of the Humboldt Current system using the SODA outputs as boundary conditions. In particular the model simulates a cooling trend of the SST off Peru although the wind stress forcing has no trend. The model is further used to document the vertical structure along the coast during the two types of El Niño. It is suggested that the increased occurrence of the CP El Niño may also lead to a reduction of mesoscale activity off Peru. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: INFRA-2007-1.2.3;INFRA-2007-1.2-03 | Award Amount: 5.11M | Year: 2008
EELA-2 aims to build, on the current EELA e-Infrastructure, a high capacity, production-quality, scalable Grid Facility providing round-the-clock, worldwide access to distributed computing, storage and network resources for a wide spectrum of applications from European and Latin American scientific communities. The project will provide an empowered Grid Facility with versatile services fulfilling application requirements and ensure the long-term sustainability of the e-Infrastructure beyond the term of the project. The specific EELA-2 objectives are: - Build a Grid Facility by: Expanding the current EELA e-Infrastructure to consist of more production sites mobilising more computing nodes and more storage space, at start of the project and to further grow storage over the duration of the project; Providing, in collaboration with related projects (e.g. EGEE), the full set of Grid Services needed by all types of scientific applications; Supporting applications various types (from classical off-line data processing up to control and data acquisition of scientific instruments), selected against well defined criteria (including grid added value, suitability for Grid deployment, outreach/potential impact); - Ensure the Grid Facility sustainability: Through the already established and new contacts with policy/decision makers, collaborating with RedCLARA and NRENs and supporting the ongoing creation of e-Science Initiatives and/or National Grid initiatives (NGI). Building the support of the e-Infrastructure to provide a complete set of Global Services from a Central Operation Centre and to pave the way for the creation of Regional Operation Centres in Latin America: Attracting new applications; Making available knowledge of EELA-2 Grid Facility to all potential users, developers, and decision makers through an extensive Training and Dissemination program; Creating knowledge repositories federated with the EGEE ones.
Vasconcellos P.C.,University of Sao Paulo |
Souza D.Z.,Institute Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucelares |
Sanchez-Ccoyllo O.,Servicio Nacional de Meteorologia e Hidrologia del Peru |
Bustillos J.O.V.,Institute Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucelares |
And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2010
This study was conducted at three sites of different characteristics in São Paulo State: São Paulo (SPA), Piracicaba (PRB) and Mata Atlântica Forest (MAT). PM10, n-alkanes, pristane and phytane, PAHs, water-soluble ions and biomass burning tracers like levoglucosan and retene, were determined in quartz fiber filters. Samplings occurred on May 8th to August 8th, 2007 at the MAT site; on August 15th to 29th in 2007 and November 10th to 29th in 2008 at the PRB site and, March 13th to April 4th in 2007 and August 7th to 29th in 2008 at the SPA site.Aliphatic compounds emitted biogenically were less abundant at the urban sites than at the forest site, and its distribution showed the influence of tropical vascular plants. Air mass transport from biomass burning regions is likely to impact the sites with specific molecular markers.The concentrations of all species were variable and dependent of seasonal changes. In the most dry and polluted seasons, n-alkane and cation total concentrations were similar between the megacity and the biomass burning site. PAHs and inorganic ion abundances were higher at São Paulo than Piracicaba, yet, the site influenced by biomass burning seems to be the most impacted by the organic anion abundance in the atmosphere. Pristane and phytane confirm the contamination by petroleum residues at urban sites; at the MAT site, biological activity and long range transport of pollutants might influence the levels of pristane. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Huggel C.,University of Zürich |
Rohrer M.,Meteodat GmbH |
Calanca P.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon |
Salzmann N.,University of Zürich |
And 3 more authors.
Eos | Year: 2012
Recent scientific assessment studies of climate change impacts, including those from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, provide evidence of the negative effects of climate variability and change on natural and human systems. For instance, recent climate trends have caused loss in wheat and maize production, negatively affected coral reefs, and changed characteristics of some hazards in high-mountain regions. Assessment studies furthermore suggest that related risks to ecosystems, commerce, and daily life may increase over the coming decades as temperatures warm. Adaptation to climate change is required to reduce the effects of unavoidable changes, especially for the most vulnerable regions and populations. © 2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.