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Santiago, Chile

Ponce C.A.,University of Chile | Gallo M.,Servicio Medico Legal | Bustamante R.,University of Chile | Vargas S.L.,University of Chile
Clinical Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010

Increasing reports of Pneumocystis DNA in noninvasive respiratory specimens from immunocompetent asymptomatic adults and the characteristic lung tropism of Pneumocystis suggest that asymptomatic pulmonary infections with Pneumocystis occur after primary infection. However, studies searching for Pneumocystis in the autopsied lungs of healthy immunocompetent adults have not met with success. Methods. Lungs of people who died of violent causes (accidents, homicide, and suicide) and of nonviolent causes (diseases causing a rapid demise in the street) in Santiago, Chile-for whom an autopsy was legally required-were examined for Pneumocystis by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA amplification of the mitochondrial large subunit ribosomal RNA-specific P. jirovecii gene and immunofluorescent microscopic analysis. Lung tissue concentration methods and analysis of ∼3% of the weight of the right upper lobe (RUL) were needed to reach the sensitivity threshold of the assays. Individuals determined to be P. jirovecii negative after analysis of 3% of the RUL weight in the violent death group were confirmed to be negative by analyzing additional tissue, totaling 6%-7% of the RUL weight. Results. P. jirovecii was identified by nested PCR in 50 (64.9%) of 77 individuals (34 [61.8%] of 55 in the violent death group and 15 [78.9%] of 19 in the nonviolent death group; P>.05) and additionally by microscopic analysis in all individuals who tested positive for P. jirovecii DNA in the violent death group. Analysis of tissue beyond 3.0% of the RUL weight for the individuals who tested negative yielded consistently negative results. Conclusions. A mild P. jirovecii pulmonary infection is prevalent in more than half of the general adult population. Our results strengthen the concept that immunocompetent adults develop frequent self-limited reinfections throughout life and participate in the circulation of P. jirovecii as an infective reservoir for susceptible individuals. © 2010 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

Objective: To describe the frequency and characteristic of child sexual aggression in adolescent women admitted to the Mental Health Unit of an Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Centre. Method: This is a cross-sectional and analytical study, clinical records were reviewed the between January 2006 and December 2009. The variables studied were: age of aggression, type and frequency of this aggression, sex, age and type of relationship with the perpetrator; disclosure and person who is informed and judicial complaint of sexual aggression. Results: The highest frequency of sexual aggression occurs in the preschool age (28.1%) and the most common is sexual abuse (73.8%), type of aggression is the most common in all ages. Most of the attacks were a single episode (59.3%). All the attackers were males and acquaintances or relatives of victims, 29.1% were under 18 years old. 36% never disclosure the assault. The 31.8% of unveiled attacks occurred in preschool. Only 14.1% made a judicial complaint. Conclusion: The majority of sexual assaults that occurred during childhood and adolescence are unveiled, nor legally reported maintaining a high level of silencing and difficulties by health equipment to support and treat victims.

St.Denis E.E.,Queens University | Sepulveda E.,Servicio Medico Legal | Tellez C.,University of Chile | Arboleda-Florez J.,Queens University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Law and Psychiatry | Year: 2012

Mental disorders are among the most prevalent of chronic disorders, and a high prevalence of these disorders has been consistently found in jails and prisons. This study was a retrospective case series that described the population of adults charged with a criminal offense who were court ordered to undergo a psychiatric assessment within the Medical Legal Service in Santiago, Chile from 2005 to 2006. Characteristics were explored in order to better understand this population in light of the recent reforms in the judicial and health systems of Chile. Ninety percent of sampled individuals were male, primarily between the ages of 18-39. years. Seventy percent of the evaluations came from the pre-reformed judicial system and 30% were from the reformed system. Approximately 63% of evaluated offenders were considered to have a psychiatric pathology, the most common being the personality disorders. Of the evaluated offenders, approximately 84% were considered by a psychiatrist to be criminally responsible for their crime, 7% were regarded as having diminished criminal responsibility, 4% were considered to be not criminally responsible for their crime, and 4% were cases where criminal responsibility was not applicable. Profession status, municipality of residence, type of residence, ICD-10 diagnosis, treatment recommendation, and criminal responsibility were found to be significantly different between male and female evaluated offenders. Results from this investigation will contribute to knowledge about forensic psychiatry and mental health in Latin America, and will hopefully pave the way for more research and international comparisons. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Gomez-Carballa A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Moreno F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Alvarez-Iglesias V.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Martinon-Torres F.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 6 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2016

The territory of Chile is particularly long and narrow, which combined with its mountainous terrain, makes it a unique scenario for human genetic studies. We obtained 995 control region mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from Chileans representing populations living at different latitudes of the country from the North to the southernmost region. The majority of the mtDNA profiles are of Native American origin (∼88%). The remaining haplotypes are mostly of recent European origin (∼11%), and only a minor proportion is of recent African ancestry (∼1%). While these proportions are relatively uniform across the country, more structured patterns of diversity emerge when examining the variation from a phylogeographic perspective. For instance, haplogroup A2 reaches ∼9% in the North, and its frequency decreases gradually to ∼1% in the southernmost populations, while the frequency of haplogroup D (sub-haplogroups D1 and D4) follows the opposite pattern: 36% in the southernmost region, gradually decreasing to 21% in the North. Furthermore, there are remarkable signatures of founder effects in specific sub-clades of Native American (e.g. haplogroups D1j and D4p) and European (e.g. haplogroups T2b3 and K1a4a1a + 195) ancestry. We conclude that the magnitude of the latitudinal differences observed in the patterns of mtDNA variation might be relevant in forensic casework. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Rivera D.,University of Deusto | Perrin P.B.,Virginia Commonwealth University | Weiler G.,Institute Prevencion Social | Ocampo-Barba N.,Fundacion Horizontes | And 8 more authors.
NeuroRehabilitation | Year: 2015

Background: The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is an instrument used to assess purposeful embellishment or fabrication of memory difficulties for personal gain. Although the TOMM can be use in non-English speaking cultures, it has not been validated in Spanish-speaking Central and South American contexts. Objective: To generate normative data on TOMM across 7 countries in Latin America, with country-specific adjustments for gender, age, and education, where appropriate. Method: The sample consisted of 2,266 healthy adults who were recruited from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Puerto Rico. Each subject was administered the TOMM as part of a larger neuropsychological battery. A standardized five-step statistical procedure was used to generate the norms. Results: t-tests did not show significant differences in TOMM performance between men and women in any countries of the TOMM Trial 1 or 2. As a result, gender-adjusted norms were not generated. Conclusions: The results from this study will have a large impact on the practice of neuropsychology in Latin America, as this is the first normative multicenter study to create norms for the TOMM in this global region. © 2015 IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.

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