Manizales, Colombia
Manizales, Colombia

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Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: CSA | Phase: SC5-16-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 1.54M | Year: 2016

The project Towards a World Forum on Raw Materials (FORAM) will develop and set up an EU-based platform of international experts and stakeholders that will advance the idea of a World Forum on Raw Materials (WFRM) and enhance the international cooperation on raw material policies and investments. The global use of mineral resources has drastically increased and supply chains have become ever more complex. A number of global initiatives and organizations have been contributing to knowledge and information transfer, including the EC, UNEP International Resource Panel, the World Resources Forum, the World Material Forum, the OECD and others. It is widely felt that improved international resource transparency and governance would be beneficial for all, since it would lead to stability, predictability, resource-efficiency and hence a better foundation for competitiveness on a sustainable basis. The FORAM project will contribute to consolidate the efforts towards a more joint and coherent approach towards raw materials policies and investments worldwide, by closely working with the relevant stakeholders in industry, European and international organisations, governments, academia and civil society. Synergies with relevant EU Member States initiatives will be explored and fostered. The project will in particular seek to engage the participation of G20 Member countries and other countries active in the mining and other raw materials sectors, so that experiences will be shared and understanding of all aspects of trade in raw materials will be increased. By implementing this project an EU-based platform of international key experts and stakeholders is created, related to the entire raw materials value chain. This platform will work together on making the current complex maze of existing raw material related initiatives more effective. As such, the FORAM project will be the largest collaborative effort for raw materials strategy cooperation on a global level so far.

Kobayashi D.,Pennsylvania State University | Kobayashi D.,University of Idaho | Lafemina P.,Pennsylvania State University | Geirsson H.,Pennsylvania State University | And 4 more authors.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2014

Subduction of the Cocos plate and collision of the Cocos Ridge have profound effects on the kinematics of the western Caribbean, including crustal shortening, segmentation of the overriding plate, and tectonic escape of the Central American fore arc (CAFA). Tectonic models of the Panama Region (PR) have ranged from a rigid block to a deforming plate boundary zone. Recent expansion of GPS networks in Panama, Costa Rica, and Colombia makes it possible to constrain the kinematics of the PR. We present an improved kinematic block model for the western Caribbean, using this improved GPS network to test a suite of tectonic models describing the kinematics of this region. The best fit model predicts an Euler vector for the counterclockwise rotation of the CAFA relative to the Caribbean plate at 89.10W, 7.74N, 1.193 Ma-1, which is expressed as northwest-directed relative block rates of 11.3 ± 1.0-16.5 ± 1.1 mm a-1 from northern Costa Rica to Guatemala. This model also predicts high coupling along the Nicoya and Osa segments of the Middle American subduction zone. Our models demonstrate that the PR acts as a single tectonic block, the Panama block, with a predicted Euler vector of 107.65W, 26.50N, 0.133 Ma-1. This rotation manifests as northeast migration of the Panama block at rates of 6.9 ± 4.0-7.8 ± 4.8 mm a -1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama. We interpret this motion as tectonic escape from Cocos Ridge collision, redirected by collision with the North Andes block, which migrates to the northwest at 12.2 ± 1.2 mm a-1. Key Points Collision of the Cocos Ridge is responsible for the upper plate kinematics The Panama Region acts as a single tectonic block, migrating northeast Interseismic coupling is high along the Nicoya and Osa segments of the trench © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Weber M.,National University of Colombia | Gomez-Tapias J.,Servicio Geologico Colombiano | Cardona A.,National University of Colombia | Duarte E.,National University of Colombia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of South American Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Plateau related rocks accreted to the Caribbean plate margins provide insights into the understanding of the intra-oceanic evolution of the Caribbean plate and its interaction with the continental margins of the Americas. Petrologic, geochemical and isotope (Sr and Nd) data were obtained in rocks from the Santa Fé Gabbro-Tonalite and Buriticá Tonalite in the Western Cordillera of Colombia.Field relations and whole rock-mineral geochemistry combined with juvenile isotope signatures of the different rocks present in the area, suggest that initial melts, represented by the Buriticá Tonalite, formed due to asthenospheric upwelling at ~100 Ma, which intrude the Colombian-Caribbean Oceanic Plateau (CCOP) basalts, and subsequent migration of the Caribbean plate towards the northeast resulted in subduction initiation and the formation of the Santa Fé tonalitic units at ~90 Ma on the CCOP. The relation of the Santa Fé Batholith with other units from the Caribbean, such as Aruba and the Buga Batholiths suggests the existence of an immature arc constructed on the Caribbean Plateau, which partially accreted onto a continental margin of South American in pre-Eocene times, or migrated to the present day position in the Lesser Antilles. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Prieto G.A.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Florez M.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Barrett S.A.,Stanford University | Beroza G.C.,Stanford University | And 3 more authors.
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

Intermediate-depth earthquakes occur at depths where temperatures and pressures exceed those at which brittle failure is expected. There are two leading candidates for the physical mechanism behind these earthquakes: dehydration embrittlement and self-localizing thermal shear runaway. A complete energy budget for a range of earthquake sizes can help constrain whether either of these mechanisms might play a role in intermediate-depth earthquake rupture. The combination of high stress drop and low radiation efficiency that we observe for Mw 4-5 earthquakes in the Bucaramanga Nest implies a temperature increase of 600-1000°C for a centimeter-scale layer during earthquake failure. This suggests that substantial shear heating, and possibly partial melting, occurs during intermediate-depth earthquake failure. Our observations support thermal shear runaway as the mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes, which would help explain differences in their behavior compared to shallow earthquakes. Key Points Evidence for thermal shear runaway mechanism for intermediate-depth earthquakes Stress drop scaling and low radiation efficiencies observed for Mw 3.5-5.2 Fracture energies larger than for shallow earthquakes with similar slip ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Chiarabba C.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | De Gori P.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | Faccenna C.,Third University of Rome | Speranza F.,Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology | And 3 more authors.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems | Year: 2016

Seismicity at the northern terminus of the Nazca subduction is diffused over a wide area containing the puzzling seismic feature known as the Bucaramanga nest. We relocate about 5000 earthquakes recorded by the Colombian national seismic network and produce the first 3-D velocity model of the area to define the geometry of the lithosphere subducting below the Colombian Andes. We found lateral velocity heterogeneities and an abrupt offset of the Wadati-Benioff zone at 5°N indicating that the Nazca plate is segmented by an E-W slab tear, that separates a steeper Nazca segment to the south from a flat subduction to the north. The flat Nazca slab extends eastward for about 400 km, before dip increases to 50° beneath the Eastern Cordillera, where it yields the Bucaramanga nest. We explain this puzzling locus of intermediate-depth seismicity located beneath the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia as due to a massive dehydration and eclogitization of a thickened oceanic crust. We relate the flat subducting geometry to the entrance at the trench at ca. 10 Ma of a thick - buoyant oceanic crust, likely a volcanic ridge, producing a high coupling with the overriding plate. Sub-horizontal plate subduction is consistent with the abrupt disappearance of volcanism in the Andes of South America at latitudes > 5°N. © 2015. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Caicedo C.A.O.,University of Cauca | Pencue Fierro L.,University of Cauca | Oliveras N.,Servicio Geologico Colombiano
Computational Modelling of Objects Represented in Images: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications III - Proceedings of the International Symposium, CompIMAGE 2012 | Year: 2012

This project presents a progress in developing a system that will support the scientific study of debris flows and the staff of the ObservatorioVulcanológico y Sismológico de Popayán (OVSPop). This progress is achieved through a system to measure flow in an open channel using a camera and digital image processing. The measurements require analysis of the super elevation of a fluid when there is a bend in its path, further prior knowledge of the channel dimensions, as a cross section, followed the system uses motion detection algorithms, accumulation of bottom, and snakes over the images, getting through them the value of the mean flow at a given time, which are corroborated with a system of flow reference measurements. The system has proven reliable in obtaining the measurements and allows for a positive vision for the future system implementation on the banks of a river, like the Páez River. © 2012 Taylor & Francis Group.

Costa C.H.,National University of San Luis | Ahumada E.A.,National University of San Luis | Gardini C.E.,National University of San Luis | Vazquez F.R.,National University of San Luis | And 2 more authors.
Geological Society Special Publication | Year: 2015

The NNW-trending Las Peñas Thrust System is one of the key structures along the Andean orogenic front between 32°15' and 32°40'S in the Southern Precordillera of Argentina. This east-verging structure crops out over a distance of c. 40 km and provides one of the best opportunities for a detailed field survey of Quaternary thrusting in the Andean frontal deformation zone. We present a systematic description of the geometry and geomorphic signatures of the main thrust deformation zone, which emplaces Neogene rocks over Quaternary alluvium, and usually behaves as a blind propagating thrust into the youngest (Late Pleistocene-Holocene) alluvial deposits. The Las Peñas Thrust System is understood to represent the latest stage of the eastward migration of an imbricated fan structure, which has driven the neotectonic uplift of the Las Peñas-Las Higueras range. Excellent outcrops provided by well-incised creek outlets reveal that the thrust system is made up either by a single fault surface or by two or more frontal splays. Several sections along its length can be differentiated on the basis of thrust geometries and/or morphotectonic features. The northern sections are characterized by isolated outcrops of Neogene rocks in the hanging wall, surrounded by alluvial bajadas. Remnants of fold limbs scarps depict the geomorphic signature of the thrust propagation into the Quaternary layers, although the preserved topographic relief always underestimates the cumulated thrust slip during the Quaternary. The southern part of this thrust system is defined by a frontal range, cored by a transposed south-plunging anticline in bedrock. Our observations suggest a dynamic and unsteady interaction between thrust propagation and sedimentation/erosion processes along the thrust trace during deposition of the Quaternary alluvial layers. © 2015 The Geological Society of London.

Orozco-Alzate M.,National University of Colombia | Castro-Cabrera P.A.,National University of Colombia | Bicego M.,University of Verona | Londono-Bonilla J.M.,Servicio Geologico Colombiano
Computers and Geosciences | Year: 2015

Distinguishing among the different seismic volcanic patterns is still one of the most important and labor-intensive tasks for volcano monitoring. This task could be lightened and made free from subjective bias by using automatic classification techniques. In this context, a core but often overlooked issue is the choice of an appropriate representation of the data to be classified. Recently, it has been suggested that using a relative representation (i.e. proximities, namely dissimilarities on pairs of objects) instead of an absolute one (i.e. features, namely measurements on single objects) is advantageous to exploit the relational information contained in the dissimilarities to derive highly discriminant vector spaces, where any classifier can be used. According to that motivation, this paper investigates the suitability of a dynamic time warping (DTW) dissimilarity-based vector representation for the classification of seismic patterns. Results show the usefulness of such a representation in the seismic pattern classification scenario, including analyses of potential benefits from recent advances in the dissimilarity-based paradigm such as the proper selection of representation sets and the combination of different dissimilarity representations that might be available for the same data. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

The Arenisca de Chiquinquira can be divided and mapped into five contrasted lithological segments, which have been denominated from base to top as A, B, C, D and E. Segments A, C and E are predominantly sandy, whereas segments B and D are lutaceous. Sandy facies are composed of 81% of quartzarenites and 19% of sublithoarenites. These rocks accumulated into a progradating shallow marine, tide-dominated environment (subtidal zone and intertidal flat), under a lower flow hydraulic regime. Lutaceous facies represent a calm marine offshore bottom, which was affected by quick accumulations of sandy or mixed sediments (sandy clastic material and shell remains). These quick accumulations of sediments occurred as a result of sediment gravitaty flows related to storms (storm beds). Occasionally, the storms deposited massive flows of sand or mixed sediments in channels or traverse depressions to the coast over the intertidal flat. The measured thickness of the Arenisca de Chiquinquira is 780 m. Upper Albian is represented along the segments A and B, while segments C, D and E represent the Cenomanian. Differential tectonic subsidence related to NW-SE normal faulting took place during the early Cenomanian, which was concomitant with sedimentation of the lower part of the segment C.

This work is framed within a geothermal research project cofinanced by ISAGEN and COLCIENCIAS called "Modeling Subsurface Structure Resistive From Surveys Magnetotelluric In Geothermal Areas Of Colombia, Case Nevado Del Ruiz" In which through a cooperative agreement between the Universidad Autónoma de México (UNAM) the Servicio Geológico Colombiano (SGC) and the Centro Internacional de Física (CIF) has been acquired magnetotelluric information composed of 105 soundings located to west of the Nevado del Ruiz. This paper illustrates the application of a methodology for processing and modeling based on 58 soundings associated with five (5) profiles. The selection of the profiles was performed using criteria such as high density of stations, proximity to a well drilled in the area and the possibility of crossing some of the surface geological structures most relevant. In the data field processing, the SSMT2000 and MTEDITOR software were used, both from the Phoenix Geophysics House, which are programmed in the basic processing algorithms such as transformation to the frequency domain programmed, the cross spectra and auto spectra, and magnetotelluric transfer function; thus is possible to obtain as a first result the MT (magnetotelluric) soundings values e xpressed in apparent resistivities and phases for each frequency. For the modeling state we used the winGlink software from the Geosystem house. As a first approximation 1D inversion were made. The invariant curve of the impedance tensor with Bostick algorithm (Bostick Transform), with Occam algorithm and additionally with the model resistivities discrete layers were used. After an analysis of the dimensionality is passed to the 2D inversion. The procedure consisted of rotating the impedances tensor to the main axes (as a first approximation) for profiles oriented NW (MT 1 and MT 2) and SW (MT 3) and rotate the tensor in EW direction for profiles oriented NS (MT 4 and MT 5), selection made from regional strike directionality found. For the 2 models, two electromagnetic modes (TE and TM) simultaneously in the inversion process were used. Finally, electrical resistivity models were obtained along five magnetotelluric profiles where we can observe that 2D models are more accurated due to the high complexity of the area (as best approach to information present in soundings).

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