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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Olivieri D.N.,University of Vigo | Gambon-Deza F.,Servicio Gallego de Salud SERGAS | Gambon-Deza F.,Instituto Biomedico Of Vigo

The adaptive immune system uses V genes for antigen recognition. However, the evolutionary diversification and selection processes within and across species and orders remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the amino acid (AA) sequences obtained from the translated in-frame V exons of immunoglobulins (IG) and T cell receptors (TR) from 16 primate species whose genomes have been sequenced. Multi-species comparative analysis supports the hypothesis that V genes in the IG loci undergo birth/death processes, thereby permitting rapid adaptability over evolutionary time. We also show that multiple cladistic groupings exist in the TRA (35 clades) and TRB (25 clades) V gene loci and that each primate species typically contributes at least one V gene to each of these clades. The results demonstrate that IG V genes and TR V genes have quite different evolutionary pathways; multiple duplications can explain the IG loci results, while coevolutionary pressures can explain the phylogenetic results of the TR V gene loci. Our results suggest that there exist evolutionary relationships between V gene clades in the TRA and TRB loci. Due to the long-standing preservation of these clades, such genes may have specific and necessary roles for the viability of a species. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Olivieri D.N.,University of Vigo | Gambon-Cerda S.,University of Vigo | Gambon-Deza F.,Servicio Gallego de Salud SERGAS | Gambon-Deza F.,Instituto Biomedico Of Vigo

Information concerning the evolution of T lymphocyte receptors (TCR) can be deciphered from that part of the molecule that recognizes antigen presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC), namely the variable (V) regions. The genes that code for these variable regions are found within the TCR loci. Here, we describe a study of the evolutionary origin of V genes that code for the α and β chains of the TCR loci of mammals. In particular, we demonstrate that most of the 35 TRAV and 25 TRBV conserved genes found in Primates are also found in other Eutheria, while in Marsupials, Monotremes, and Reptiles, these genes diversified in a different manner. We also show that in mammals, all TRAV genes are derived from five ancestral genes, while all TRBV genes originate from four such genes. In Reptiles, the five TRAV and three out of the four TRBV ancestral genes exist, as well as other V genes not found in mammals. We also studied the TRGV and TRDV loci from all mammals, and we show a relationship of the TRDV to the TRAV locus throughout evolutionary time. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Estevez O.,University of Vigo | Garet E.,University of Vigo | Olivieri D.,University of Vigo | Gambon-Deza F.,Servicio Gallego de Salud SERGAS
Molecular Immunology

We studied the immunoglobulin genes from either the genomes or RNAs of amphibians. In particular, we obtained data from one frog genome (Nanorana parkeri) and three transcriptomes of the Caudata order (Andrias davidianus, Notophthalmus viridescens and Cynops pyrrhogaster). Apart from the immunoglobulins IgM and IgY previously described, we identified several IgD related immunoglobulins. The species N. parkeri, N. viridescens and C. pyrrhogaster have two IgD genes, while Andrias davidianus has three such genes. The three Caudata species have long IgD immunoglobulins similar to IgD of reptiles, and could be an ancient relic from the common ancestor of IgD of all mammals and reptiles. We also found two IgA isotypes. The results suggest that one of the IgA may be the ancestor of IgA in crocodiles and birds, while the other could be the ancestor IgA found in mammals. These results provide information that could help understand the evolution of immunoglobulins in terrestrial vertebrates. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Magadan-Mompo S.,Servicio Gallego de Salud SERGAS | Magadan-Mompo S.,Spanish Institute of Oceanography | Magadan-Mompo S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Sanchez-Espinel C.,Servicio Gallego de Salud SERGAS | And 2 more authors.

Immunoglobulin loci of two representatives of the order Crocodylia were studied from full genome sequences. Both Alligator mississippiensis and Crocodylus porosus have 13 genes for the heavy chain constant regions of immunoglobulins. The IGHC locus contains genes encoding four immunoglobulins M (IgM), one immunoglobulin D (IgD), three immunoglobulins A (IgA), three immunoglobulins Y (IgY), and two immunoglobulins D2 (IgD2). IgA and IgD2 genes were found in reverse transcriptional orientation compared to the other Ig genes. The IGHD gene contains 11 exons, four of which containing stop codons or sequence alterations. As described in other reptiles, the IgD2 is a chimeric Ig with IgA- and IgD-related domains. This work clarifies the origin of bird IgA and its evolutionary relationship with amphibian immunoglobulin X (IgX) as well as their links with mammalian IgA. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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