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Jurado-Tarifa E.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Napp S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gomez-Pacheco J.M.,Laboratorio Of Sanidad Y Produccion Animal | Fernandez-Morente M.,Servicio de Sanidad Animal | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in waterfowl used as decoys in Andalusia, southern Spain. A total of 2319 aquatic birds from 193 flocks were analyzed before and after the hunting season 2011-2012. In the first sampling, 403 out of 2319 (18.0%, CI 95% : 15.8-19.0) decoys showed antibodies against AIVs by ELISA. The AI seroprevalence was significantly higher in geese (21.0%) than in ducks (11.7%) (P<0.001). Besides, the spatial distribution of AIVs was not homogeneous as significant differences among regions were observed. The prevalence of antibodies against AIVs subtypes H5 and H7 were 1.1% and 0.3%, respectively, using hemagglutination inhibition test (HI). The overall and H5 seroprevalences slightly increased after the hunting period (to 19.2% and 1.4%, respectively), while the H7 seroprevalence remained at the same level (0.3%). The proportion of flocks infected by AIVs was 65.3%, while 11.2% and 4.9% of flocks were positive for H5 and H7, respectively. Viral shedding was not detected in any of the 47 samples positive by both ELISA and HI, tested by RRT-PCR. The individual incidence after the hunting season was 3.4%. The fact that 57 animals seroconverted, 15 of which were confirmed by HI (12 H5 and 3 H7), was indication of contact with AIVs during the hunting period. The results indicate that waterfowl used as decoys are frequently exposed to AIVs and may be potentially useful as sentinels for AIVs monitoring. The seroprevalence detected and the seropositivity against AIVs H5 and H7, suggest that decoys can act as reservoirs of AIVs, which may be of animal and public health concern. © 2014 Jurado-Tarifa et al.

Garcia-Bocanegra I.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Allepuz A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Perez J.J.,Laboratorio Of Sanidad Y Produccion Animal | Alba A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Six serological assays for the diagnosis of ovine brucellosis, due to Brucella melitensis were evaluated. Reference serum samples from sheep of known B. melitensis infection status (n= 118) were assessed using the Rose Bengal test (RBT), complement fixation test (CFT) and four commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), including two indirect ELISAs (iELISAs), one competitive ELISA (cELISA) and one blocking ELISA (bELISA).The highest differential positive rates (DPR) were obtained with the cELISA and bELISA, while the lowest DPR was estimated using iELISAs. A latent class analysis was performed to estimate the accuracy of the CFT, RBT and bELISA using 1827 sera from sheep undergoing testing as part of a surveillance and control programme. Lower sensitivity and specificity were obtained for the three serological tests when the field samples were used. A higher DPR was achieved by the CFT, compared to bELISA and RBT. The results suggest that ELISAs, and particularly the bELISA, might be suitable for inclusion in the European Union legislation on intra-community trade for diagnosing B. melitensis infection in sheep, as it has a similar test performance compared to the RBT. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Guta S.,National Animal Health Diagnostic and Investigation Center | Guta S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Casal J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Garcia-Saenz A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 5 more authors.
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2014

In order to assess risk factors related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) persistence, a case-control study, comparing persistent versus transient bTB infected beef farms from Central and Southern Spain, was conducted. Farms were matched by herd size and geographical location (county). A questionnaire administered by personal interview was conducted on 150 herds (80 controls and 70 cases) from Andalucia and Castilla La Mancha regions. The questionnaire included questions related to the personnel involved in routine diagnostics, structure of the farm and of the herd, management, presence of other domestic species and of wildlife reservoirs.According to the results of our study, farms with large pasture areas and bTB infected neighbors had more difficulties in eradicating the disease, and therefore, were more likely to suffer a persistent bTB infection. The odds of bTB persistence were between 1.2 and 5.1 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher in those herds that had a neighbor infected herd. Farms with large pasture areas had odds between 1.2 and 12.7 (i.e., 95% confidence interval of the OR) times higher of having a persistent bTB episode than farms with small pasture areas. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Munoz Mendoza M.,Servicio de Sanidad Animal | Juan L.D.,Complutense University of Madrid | Ocampo A.,Area Veterinaria de Lalin | Mourelo J.,Servicio de Sanidad Animal | And 5 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2012

Tuberculosis was diagnosed in three flocks of sheep in Galicia, Spain, in 2009 and 2010. Two flocks were infected with Mycobacterium bovis and one flock was infected with Mycobacterium caprae. Infection was confirmed by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test, bacteriology, molecular analysis and histopathology. Sheep have the potential to act as a reservoir for tuberculosis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

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