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PubMed | Servicio Of Oncologia Radioterapica Consorcio Hospitalario Provincial Of Castellon and Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2017

We present a literature review of risk analyses in radiotherapy to highlight the most reported risks and facilitate the spread of this valuable information so that professionals can be aware of these major threats before performing their own studies.We considered studies with at least an estimation of the probability of occurrence of an adverse event (O) and its associated severity (S). They cover external beam radiotherapy, brachytherapy, intraoperative radiotherapy, and stereotactic techniques. We selected only the works containing a detailed ranked series of elements or failure modes and focused on the first fully reported quartile as much. Afterward, we sorted the risk elements according to a regular radiotherapy procedure so that the resulting groups were cited in several works and be ranked in this way.29 references published between 2007 and February 2016 were studied. Publication trend has been generally rising. The most employed analysis has been the Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA). Among references, we selected 20 works listing 258 ranked risk elements. They were sorted into 31 groups appearing at least in two different works. 11 groups appeared in at least 5 references and 5 groups did it in 7 or more papers. These last sets of risks where choosing another set of images or plan for planning or treating, errors related with contours, errors in patient positioning for treatment, human mistakes when programming treatments, and planning errors.There is a sufficient amount and variety of references for identifying which failure modes or elements should be addressed in a radiotherapy department before attempting a specific analysis. FMEA prevailed, but other studies such as risk matrix or occurrence severity analyses can also lead professionals efforts. Risk associated with human actions ranks very high; therefore, they should be automated or at least peer-reviewed.


PubMed | Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Medical physics | Year: 2011

Asymmetric collimators are currently available in most of linear accelerators. They involve a lot of clinical improvements, such as the monoisocentric beam split technique that is more and more used in many external radiotherapy treatments. The tolerance established for each independent jaw positioning is 1 mm. Within this tolerance, a gap or overlap of the collimators up to 2 mm can occur in the half beams matching region, causing dose heterogeneities up to 40%. In order to solve this dosimetric problem, we propose an accurate jaw calibration method based on the Monte Carlo modeling of linac photon beams.Simulating different jaw misalignments, the dose distribution occurring in the matching region for each particular configuration is precisely known, so we can relate the misalignment of the jaws with the maximum heterogeneity produced. From experimental measurements using film dosimetry, and taking into account Monte Carlo results, we obtain the actual misalignment of each jaw. By direct inspection of the readings of the potentiometers that control the position of the jaws, high precision correction can be performed, adjusting the obtained misalignments.In the linac studied, the dose heterogeneity in the junction performed with X jaws (those farther from the source), and 6 MV photon beam was initially over 12%, although each jaw was within the tolerance in position. After jaw calibration, the heterogeneity was reduced to below 3%.With this method, we are able to reduce the positioning accuracy to 0.2 mm. Consequently, the dose distribution in the junction of abutted fields is highly smoothed, achieving the maximum dose heterogeneity to be less than 3%.

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