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Higa L.H.,National University of Quilmes | Corral R.S.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Jose Morilla M.,National University of Quilmes | Romero E.L.,National University of Quilmes | Petray P.B.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas
Human Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics | Year: 2013

Archaeosomes (ARC), vesicles made from lipids extracted from Archaea, display strong adjuvant properties. In this study, we evaluated the ability of the highly stable ARC formulated from total polar lipids of a new Halorubrum tebenquichense strain found in Argentinean Patagonia, to act as adjuvant for soluble parasite antigens in developing prophylactic vaccine against the intracellular protozoan T. cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. We demonstrated for the first time that C3H/HeN mice subcutaneously immunized with trypanosomal antigens entrapped in these ARC (ARC-TcAg) rapidly developed higher levels of circulating T. cruzi antibodies than those measured in the sera from animals receiving the antigen alone. Enhanced humoral responses elicited by ARC-TcAg presented a dominant IgG2a antibody isotype, usually associated with Th1-type immunity and resistance against T. cruzi. More importantly, ARC-TcAg-vaccinated mice displayed reduced parasitemia during early infection and were protected against an otherwise lethal challenge with the virulent Tulahuén strain of the parasite. Our findings suggest that, as an adjuvant, H. Tebenquichense-derived ARC may hold great potential to develop a safe and helpful vaccine against this relevant human pathogen. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

Cura C.I.,CONICET | Lucero R.H.,Northeast National University | Bisio M.,CONICET | Formichelli L.B.,Northeast National University | And 17 more authors.
Parasitology | Year: 2012

Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi may play a role in pathogenesis of Chagas disease forms. Natural populations are classified into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) Tc I-VI with taxonomical status. This study aimed to identify T. cruzi DTUs in bloodstream and tissue samples of Argentinean patients with Chagas disease. PCR-based strategies allowed DTU identification in 256 clinical samples from 239 Argentinean patients. Tc V prevailed in blood from both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases and Tc I was more frequent in bloodstream, cardiac tissues and chagoma samples from immunosuppressed patients. Tc II and VI were identified in a minority of cases, while Tc III and Tc IV were not detected in the studied population. Interestingly, Tc I and Tc II/VI sequences were amplified from the same skin biopsy slice from a kidney transplant patient suffering Chagas disease reactivation. Further data also revealed the occurrence of mixed DTU populations in the human chronic infection. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence of the complexity of the dynamics of T. cruzi diversity in the natural history of human Chagas disease and allege the pathogenic role of DTUs I, II, V and VI in the studied population. © Copyright 2012 Published by Cambridge University Press. Source

Altcheh J.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Moscatelli G.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Moroni S.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Garcia-Bournissen F.,University of Toronto | Freilij H.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas
Pediatrics | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is caused by infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. In adults, treatment with benznidazole is associated with a high incidence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). However, in infants and children, treatment with benznidazole seems associated with a lower incidence and decreased severity of ADRs, but these effects have not been clearly characterized. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe ADRs observed in infants and children treated with benznidazole. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of infants and children in Argentina with Chagas disease treated with benznidazole. RESULTS: A total of 107 infants and children diagnosed with asymptomatic Chagas disease (mean age: 6.9 years) were enrolled in the study. Sixty-two events (in 44 children) were considered benznidazole related. Mean ADR duration was 8.2 days. ADRs were mild (80.6%), moderate (16%), or severe (3.2%). Most (77.3%) ADRs were in children older than 7 years. Skin was the organ with the highest incidence of ADRs (21%), followed by the central nervous system (9%) and the gastrointestinal tract (8.5%). Also, the ADR rate was lower in infants and toddlers compared with older children (18% vs 53%) (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with benznidazole was well tolerated in children. Most ADRs were mild and did not require treatment suspension. A strong association was observed between ADR incidence and patient age, and most ADRs occurred in children older than 7 years. We believe that anxiety over potential severe ADRs in children with Chagas disease is not justified and should not be an obstacle to using benznidazole. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Gulin J.E.N.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Gulin J.E.N.,CONICET | Rocco D.M.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Garcia-Bournissen F.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Garcia-Bournissen F.,CONICET
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2015

Publication of accurate and detailed descriptions of methods in research articles involving animals is essential for health scientists to accurately interpret published data, evaluate results and replicate findings. Inadequate reporting of key aspects of experimental design may reduce the impact of studies and could act as a barrier to translation of research findings. Reporting of animal use must be as comprehensive as possible in order to take advantage of every study and every animal used. Animal models are essential to understanding and assessing new chemotherapy candidates for Chagas disease pathology, a widespread parasitic disease with few treatment options currently available. A systematic review was carried out to compare ARRIVE guidelines recommendations with information provided in publications of preclinical studies for new anti-Trypanosoma cruzi compounds. A total of 83 publications were reviewed. Before ARRIVE guidelines, 69% of publications failed to report any macroenvironment information, compared to 57% after ARRIVE publication. Similar proportions were observed when evaluating reporting of microenvironmental information (56% vs. 61%). Also, before ARRIVE guidelines publication, only 13% of papers described animal gender, only 18% specified microbiological status and 13% reported randomized treatment assignment, among other essential information missing or incomplete. Unfortunately, publication of ARRIVE guidelines did not seem to enhance reporting quality, compared to papers appeared before ARRIVE publication. Our results suggest that there is a strong need for the scientific community to improve animal use description, animal models employed, transparent reporting and experiment design to facilitate its transfer and application to the affected human population. Full compliance with ARRIVE guidelines, or similar animal research reporting guidelines, would be an excellent start in this direction. © 2015 Gulin et al. Source

Moreno Ayala M.A.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Moreno Ayala M.A.,University of Buenos Aires | Casasco A.,Servicio de Parasitologia y Enfermedad de Chagas | Casasco A.,University of Buenos Aires | And 5 more authors.
Parasitology Research | Year: 2016

The inflammatory response in the myocardium is an important aspect of the pathogenesis of Chagas’ heart disease raised by Trypanosoma cruzi. CD40, a transmembrane type I receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) family, is expressed in a broad spectrum of cell types and is crucial in several inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Activation of CD40 through ligation to CD40L (CD154) induces multiple effects, including the secretion of proinflammatory molecules. In the present study, we examined the ability of T. cruzi to trigger the expression of CD40 in cardiac myocytes in vitro and in a murine model of chagasic cardiomyopathy. Our results indicate, for the first time, that T. cruzi is able to induce the expression of CD40 in HL-1 murine cardiomyocytes. Moreover, ligation of CD40 receptor upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6), associated with inflammation. Furthermore, the induction of this costimulatory molecule was demonstrated in vivo in myocardium of mice infected with T. cruzi. This suggests that CD40-bearing cardiac muscle cells could interact with CD40L-expressing lymphocytes infiltrating the heart, thus contributing to inflammatory injury in chagasic cardiomyopathy. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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