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Mesia R.,Institute Catala dOncologia lHopsitalet | Pastor M.,Hospital General Universitario la Fe | Grau J.J.,Servicio de Oncologia Medica | Del Barco E.,Hospital Universitario Of Salamanca
Clinical and Translational Oncology

Head and neck cancer represents 5 % of oncologic cases in adults. Early stage treatments are local with surgery and/or radiotherapy. For locally advanced stages, treatment requires radiotherapy combined with platinum-based drugs or cetuximab. Induction chemotherapy should be considered for selected cases. In the case of metastatic disease, adjuvant or palliative treatment is based on platinum agents and cetuximab. © 2013 Federación de Sociedades Españolas de Oncología (FESEO). Source

Ales Martinez J.E.,Servicio de Oncologia Medica
Revisiones en Cancer

In Spain there are 25,000 new breast cancer patients every year and 6,000 women die annually of this disease. Breast cancer prevention by inhibiting estrogenic function has been repeatedly demonstrated. Recently, The British National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has included tamoxifen and raloxifene as preventive agents for high risk populations. However, side effects associated with each of these drugs require an individualized risk evaluation and prevent their indiscriminate use. More recent chemoprevention trials with aromatase inhibitors have shown definitely that exemestane and anastrozole improve the risk/benefit ratio of pharmacological breast cancer prevention. This has led to the updated guidelines of the American Association of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) to add exemestane as a new breast cancer preventive agent. However, there is still considerable lack of information and insight into the cause and ways to prevent hormone receptor negative breast cancer. New findings into the mechanisms underlying breast cancer carcinogenesis, the discovery of new molecular targets and development of even better-tolerated drugs are needed to make additional progress in this area. Copyright © 2015 ARAN EDICIONES, S.L. Source

High grade gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors in adult. Median age of people in Western countries keep on growing and the conjuction of these variables make us reorganize the treatment of the high grade gliomas diagnosed in the elderly. Some advances have been produced in last years in the molecular knowledgement so in the diagnosis and therapeutical weapons that let us be more specific in the treatment with a better quality of life for patients. In this review we analyze the state of the art about clinical management of the elderly patients with high grade gliomas. Copyright © 2014 ARAN EDICIONES, S. L. Source

Garcia Paredes B.,Servicio de Oncologia Medica
Revisiones en Cancer

Despite major improvements in its management, chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting remains one of the most feared side effects of cancer treatment. In the absence of antiemetic prophylaxis, between 70 % and 80 % of patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy will experience nausea and/or vomiting. With the correct use of the available antiemetic therapy, this unwanted side effect as well as its negative impact on the quality of life, functional capacity and patients health, can be avoided. Antiemetic guidelines, which integrate the latest clinical research on this issue, are useful tools to guide physicians in the optimal management of antiemetic drugs. However, despite the availability of these guidelines, there is an emerging evidence that adherence to, and implementation of, treatment recommendations is less than optimal. We will review the current antiemetic guidelines and how are implemented in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 ARAN EDICIONES, S.L. Source

Cancer-related pain is experienced by 90% of patients with cancer. The mainstays of treatment are opioids and the World Health Organization's analgesic ladder. Breakthrough cancer pain (BCP) is a form of cancer-related pain that is particularly difficult to manage with classical opioids. In this review, we discuss titration and opioid rotation in both background and breakthrough pain. We also review the contribution of fast-acting fentanyl preparations for the treatment of BCP and its indications and dose titration. The first drugs developed specifically for the treatment of BCP were oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (CFOT) and fentanyl buccal tablets. Because oral fentanyl administration is not an option in many cancer patients, the development of a fentanyl nasal spray (FNS) has emerged as a more effective method of administration. © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cuidados Paliativos. Source

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