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Palencia-Herrejon E.,Servicio de Medicina Intensiva
Revista española de quimioterapia : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia | Year: 2011

Gastric antisecretory drugs, especially proton pump inhibitors, are among the most used drugs both in ambulatory and hospital settings, and prescription does not always follows approved indications. Experimental data suggest that gastric acid inhibition and the effects of proton pump inhibitors on the immune system can promote the development of infections. In recent years a number of observational studies have found an independent association between the use of proton pump inhibitors and an increased risk of gastrointestinal infections, including those caused by Clostridium difficile, and community and nosocomial pneumonia. This review discusses the current evidence, raises the potential pathogenic mechanisms involved and makes recommendations for current clinical practice and future research. Source

Objective: To assess the clinical impact of on-site thrombolysis versus referral to another hospital in patients with ischemic stroke attended in a hospital lacking a stroke unit. Design: Expected value decision analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. Patients and setting: Decision analysis based on a cohort study (SIT-MOST) and a meta-analysis of randomized trials of thrombolysis versus placebo in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Interventions: On-site thrombolysis (in hospitals lacking a stroke unit) versus delayed thrombolysis in a reference hospital. Main outcomes: Neurological outcome (modified Rankin scale) three months after admission according to the delay in the administration of thrombolysis. Results: At baseline (initial delay of 135. min, travel time 60. minutes), on-site treatment was more effective than referral to another hospital (number of patients with favorable neurological outcome 45.3% versus 41.3%). In patients seen within 45. minutes of the onset of symptoms, for every 10 patients transferred there was an additional case with an unfavorable neurological outcome that could have been avoided with on-site thrombolysis. In the Monte Carlo analysis, biased against on-site treatment by a reduction in effectiveness of 30%, on-site treatment was superior to patient referral in 77.2% of the cases. Conclusions: The available evidence does not support the recommendations of the national stroke strategy or some regional plans that discourage the administration of thrombolysis in hospitals without stroke units. © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. Source

Eckmann C.,Leibniz University of Hanover | Sanchez-Garcia M.,Servicio de Medicina Intensiva
Critical Care | Year: 2013

The ideal management of infection includes not only the early identification and start of effective therapy but also the correct categorization of non-infected patients in order to avoid unnecessary use of antimicrobials. The availability of a specific and sensitive test for the presence of infection is of paramount importance to improve the prudent use of antimicrobial therapy. Procalcitonin (PCT) has been evaluated over recent years as to whether it can be used to detect the presence of different types of infection, allows reduced duration of antibiotic therapy, or predicts treatment failure or adverse outcome. In the previous issue of Critical Care, Jung and colleagues report about the monitoring of treatment response in abdominal sepsis by repetitive determination of PCT. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Sanchez Garcia M.,Servicio de Medicina Intensiva
Medicina Intensiva | Year: 2010

Selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) has been proven to prevent infections of endogenous development and reduce mortality in critically ill patients under prolonged mechanical ventilation. Historical arguments against its use, like the development of bacterial resistance or the selection of resistant microorganisms and the absence of influence on mortality have not been confirmed. Moreover, recent clinical trials designed to evaluate these variables, show remarkable reductions in the incidence of resistant bacteria and a significant beneficial effect on mortality. Furthermore, no increases in workload or costs have been documented. A few studies with post-trial and intermediate range follow-up periods didn't find increases in resistance. Implementation of SDD requires motivation and leadership in order to achieve cooperation of other related hospital specialists, training of several categories of healthcare professionals, and continuous monitoring of results. In order to facilitate the use of SDD in the critically ill, this preventive measure should be incorporated in guidelines of national and international scientific societies and working groups involved in the care of the critically ill patient. The general implementation of SDD in our intensive care units must be accompanied by a registry in order to be able to monitor the effect on the incidence of infection and bacterial resistance. For this purpose, the Spanish national ICU infection and resistance surveillance programme ENVIN-HELICS, active over the last 15 years, constitutes both a more than adequate tool, and the convenient reference data base. © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. Source

Sanchez-Morago G.V.,Servicio de Medicina Intensiva
Revista de enfermería (Barcelona, Spain) | Year: 2010

In spite of the major advances which have occurred in medicine and biotechnology over these last years, regarding intravenous therapy the greatest advances have occurred, on the one hand, in bio-compatible and throw away catheters and, on the other hand, in security devices which avoid accidental punctures. Advances to locate veins have been very limited, having been developed on occasion by devices which are not easily transported and which require fungible material when they make contact with a patient's skin. The AccuVein AV300 device is a portable manual use instrument which enables nurses to locate certain peripheral veins. This device does not substitute a nurse's traditional skill in locating veins by visual or feeling means, but rather this device supplements their skills and enhances them. This device is lightweight, intuitive, and does not require previous training for its use and hygiene since it never enters into contact with a patient's skin as it emits an infrared light on the skin which reflects veins drawing them on the surface of the skin. Source

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