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Simon A.,Servicio de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico Agroalimentario | GonzaLez-Fandos E.,University of La Rioja
Journal of Food Quality | Year: 2010

The effect of washing with a solution of 10 g/L citric acid or 100 mg/L acidified sodium hypochlorite solution (pH 6.5) on the visual and microbiological quality of whole mushrooms when stored at 3C for up to 13 days was evaluated. The washed mushrooms were compared with water-washed and untreated mushrooms. The color, bacterial blotch incidence and Pseudomonas counts were determined. Washing with citric acid reduced Pseudomonas counts by 2 log units throughout storage and avoided bacterial blotch during 13 days of storage at 3C, but color deterioration was observed. Washing with sodium hypochlorite hardly reduced Pseudomonas and did not avoid bacterial blotch, and even produced mushroom browning. The effect of the washing treatments depended on the initial condition of the mushrooms used. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Simon A.,Servicio de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico Agroalimentario | Gonzalez-Fandos E.,University of La Rioja | Vazquez M.,University of La Rioja
Food Control | Year: 2010

The effect of washing with citric acid before slicing and the effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the sensorial and microbiological quality of sliced mushrooms when stored at 5 °C for up to 17 days was evaluated. The atmosphere generated with the perforated PVC film was similar to that of air atmosphere. The non-perforated PVC film generated CO2 concentrations inside the packages ranging from 6.9% to 3.1% and O2 concentrations ranging from 2% to 6% depending on the storage time. Washing with citric acid reduced microbial counts by 2.5 log units on day 0. The anti-microbial effect of citric acid decreased during storage but remained significant on each sampling day. Modified atmospheres reduced the microbial counts by 0.8 log units throughout storage. The effect of washing with citric acid combined with packaging in modified atmosphere resulted additive. The reduction of microbial counts avoided bacterial blotch in washed mushrooms during 17 days of storage at 5 °C. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Simon A.,Servicio de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico Agroalimentario | Gonzalez-Fandos E.,University of La Rioja
Food Control | Year: 2011

The sensory and microbiological quality of fresh peeled white asparagus packaged in two different types of P-Plus films and stored at two different temperatures (5 °C and 10 °C) for up to 14 days, was studied. The shelf life limiting alterations at each temperature were evaluated. The best modified atmosphere was determined.At 10 °C, the shelf life was 6 days, the loss of freshness was the main cause of quality loss, as indicated by colour darkening and presence of blotches. Moreover the sensorial acceptance of cooked asparagus was affected, being on the limit.Fresh appearance was maintained better at 5 °C than at 10 °C, being microbial spoilage the main limiting factor. The atmosphere generated with film A (around 7% CO2 and 15% O2) inhibited spoilage and maintained the acidity of asparagus better than the atmosphere generated by film B (around 2% CO2 and 20% O2). The shelf life of asparagus packaged in film A and stored at 5 °C was 14 days.Mesophiles and enterobacteriaceae counts in asparagus stored at 5 °C were acceptable during 14 days being around 7 log cfu/g. Mesophiles counts were slightly higher in asparagus stored at 10 °C than at 5 °C, while the increase in enterobacteriaceae was clearly higher in asparagus stored at 10 °C. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Mariscal-Sancho I.,Technical University of Madrid | Ball B.C.,Crop and Soil Systems Research Group | Peregrina F.,Servicio de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico Agroalimentario
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2011

Organic manures can complement or even replace mineral fertilization of a pasture within a sustainable production system. In this article, an evaluation is made of the changes occurring in some properties related to soil quality after 7 years of applying two types of organic manures, poultry manure (PM) and sewage-sludge pellets (SP), compared those produced by normal mineral fertilization and a control. Both organic manures were effective for improving the quality of the soil surface horizon; however, PM appeared more effective in accumulating organic matter and improved more soil properties than did SP. The PM in particular improved soil aggregation, microbial development, and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in the form of organic matter. On the other hand, SP lowered soil pH and increased β-glucosidase activity. The soil water-storage capacity and conservation also increased with the application of both organic manures. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Mariscal-Sancho I.,Technical University of Madrid | Santano J.,Technical University of Madrid | Mendiola M.-A.,Technical University of Madrid | Peregrina F.,Servicio de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico Agroalimentario | Espejo R.,Technical University of Madrid
Soil Science | Year: 2010

Soil respiration is the second-largest terrestrial carbon flux, and it has shown to be deeply affected by soil management. This article reports a field and laboratory study comparing CO2 emission rates from the soil surface and β-glucosidase activity in Mediterranean Ultisols from the Cañamero raña surface (continental detritic formations from southwest Spain) under different soil management conditions and vegetation cover: 1) soil in a cork oak grove, the climax vegetation of the studied raña surface; 2) soil in a Cistus scrubland with a 100% cover, uncultived for the past 45 years; 3) soil in a crop field that has been uncultivated for the past 35 years and with 55% of the shrub cover dominated by Cistus crispus L. and the rest covered by pasture; 4) soil in a degraded pastureland; and 5) soil in an olive grove that has been continuously cultivated for the past 65 years. We made a comparative assessment of aerobic activity in each of the soils at different times of the year. The level of degradation of natural vegetation, and therefore also the organic matter content, which decreased from Areas 1 to 5, affected the rate of CO2 emission from the soil surface. This rate was also affected by soil water content, soil temperature, and the predominance of Cistus ladanifer L. in the soil vegetation cover. In the case of the Olea europaea L. grove soil, the CO2 emission rate notably increased during autumn in years of high fruit production as a result of increased root respiration. β-Glucosidase activity was mostly, and positively, affected by organic matter content and also was negatively affected by the predominance of C. ladanifer in the vegetation soil cover. Copyright © 2010 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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