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Rosmarin M.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Urrutia M.A.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Blanc E.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Macias M.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | And 8 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Year: 2015

Background: Since the implementation of the Bethesda System for cytology classification of thyroid nodules into 6 categories, the Bethesda III group (B III) has been the most controversial as regards follow-up management. Reported data shows that about 4 to 20 % of all biopsied nodules belong to this category, with the risk of malignancy being 5 to 15 %. Objective: To determine clinical and sonographic features of thyroid nodules classified as BIII in our population and analyze their evolution over time. Methods: We determined the clinical and ultrasonographic (US) features of all patients who had undergone fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) in 2011-2013 at our Institution for Retirees and Pensioners. Descriptive study of all patients with nodules classified as BIII with a median follow-up time of 24 months (2 to 35 months). Results: Out of 945 nodules from 784 patients biopsied (age, mean ± SD:71.1±7.1 years), 85 (8.99 %) were classified as BIII. Six patients had received neck radiation, and 5 reported family history of thyroid cancer. The median (range) largest diameter of nodules was 18 mm (9-54 mm). Fifty-four nodules (76.1 %) were solid, 16 (22.5 %) mixed, and 1 spongiform. Based on echogenicity, 36.7 % were hypoechoic, 54.4 % isoechoic and 8.9 % hyperechoic. Twenty-two nodules (25.88 %) were taller than wider, 8.33 % had microcalcifications and 9.9 % had irregular margins. At Doppler evaluation, 39.43 % of nodules had peripheral vascularity, 4.23 % showed central vascularity and 56.34 % had mixed vascularity. In 7 out of 72 patients with BIII classification, surgery was indicated at the start based on suspicious clinical and US findings for malignancy, or family history of thyroid cancer. Out of these 7 patients, 3 were found to have papillary carcinoma (PTC), 1 follicular adenoma (FA), 1 colloid goiter (CG), 1 adenomatous nodule (AN) and 1 chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT). As regards the follow-up and evolution of the rest of the group, 9 were lost, 21 remained in observation and 35 (48.6 %) with 40 nodules underwent a second FNAB, with the following results: 2 BI, 23 BII, 14 BIII and 1 B V. Out of 14 nodules confirmed as BIII on repeat FNAB, 7 were operated on, resulting in: 2 CLT, 3 CG, 1 FA and 1 PTC. The BV nodule proved to be PTC. A total of 16 patients with BIII nodules underwent surgery (7 initially, 8 after a second FNAB, and 1 during clinical and US follow-up) and 5 (31.25 %) were PTC while 11 (68.75 %) were benign. Conclusion: Even though BIII thyroid nodules generally require a second FNAB, in our experience clinical and US findings suspicious for malignancy, or family history of thyroid cancer could allow some patients to be offered surgery at initial presentation. Copyright ® 2015 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.


Costanzo P.R.,Hospital Of Italiano | Suarez S.,Hospital Of Italiano | Aszpis S.M.,Hospital Durand | Stewart Usher J.G.,Centro Medico Haedo | And 5 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Year: 2015

Gynecomastia is a benign enlargement of breast tissue in men. It occurs physiologically in three stages of life: newborns, pubescent boys and older adults. It is a frequent reason for consulting and -though generally benign-it produces anxiety and discomfort. It is important to differentiate between the asymptomatic presence of palpable breast tissue, which is of little clinical relevance, and a recent onset breast enlargement usually associated with pain and swelling, which can be a sign of illness or pharmacological impact. Aims: To evaluate the presenting features (symptoms, duration, laterality, etc.) and biochemical profile of gynecomastia; to assess the etiology of gynecomastia in the study population. Methods: Retrospective, multicenter study. We evaluated the medical records of 220 men aged 18-85 years (average age 33 years: median 39.5 ± 19.6 years) with imaging and clinical diagnosis of gynecomastia who had undergone biochemical assessment. The consultation period was from May 2002 to June 2013. The following data was assessed: breast pain, duration of gynecomastia, sexual function, galactorrhea, weight change, habits (alcohol, drug addiction, anabolic steroids), history of pubertal gynecomastia, use of medication and family history of gynecomastia. Physical examination: weight, height, body mass index (BMI), breast and gonadal examination. Laboratory: total testosterone (TT), bioavailable testosterone (Bio-T), estradiol (E2), luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, prolactin, thyrotropin, alpha fetoprotein, β subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin and carcinoembryonic antigen. For hormonal abnormalities, each site's reference values were considered. In all patients, gynecomastia was confirmed by ultrasound and/or mammography. Results: A higher prevalence of gynecomastia is observed in the age range between 21 and 30 years (n = 66; 30 %). Most patients presented spontaneously (77.7 %); the rest were referred from other specialties. The most frequent reasons for consultation were aesthetic reasons (70.4 %) and breast pain (27.3 %). Twenty-three point two percent of subjects had a history of pubertal gynecomastia. Evolution time prior to consultation was highly variable (1 month to 40 years). On physical examination, 122 patients (55.4 %) had bilateral and 98 patients (44.6 %) had unilateral gynecomastia (54.1 % left and 45.9 % right); 44.8 % were overweight and 22.4 % were obese. BMI: 27.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2. In 29.1 % of patients breast pain was identified on medical examination. One patient (with macroprolactinoma) had spontaneous galactorrhea and in 3 patients mammary secretion was found on physical examination. Gonadal examination was performed in 147 patients, 126 had normal testicular volume, 10 had bilateral hypotrophy, 7 had unilateral hypotrophy and 4 unilateral absence of the testis. Idiopathic gynecomastia was the most common etiology (47.8 %). The most relevant secondary cause of gynecomastia was anabolic steroids consumption (14.1 %). In 6 cases two causes coexisted (total: 226 causes). Elevated cancer markers were not found in any of the cases. If we divide the population into patients younger and older than 40, in the former the most common secondary causes were the use of anabolic steroids and persistent pubertal gynecomastia, while in patients older than 40, they were hypogonadism and medical drug use. Patients with bilateral gynecomastia had a longer history of gynecomastia: 3.4 ± 5.7 versus 1.4 ± 1.9 years (p = 0.0004); higher BMI: 28.4 ± 4.4 versus 25.5 ± 3.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.0001) and lower TT levels: 4.7 ± 2.0 versus 5.4 ± 1.9 ng/ml (p=0.019) than patients with unilateral gynecomastia, respectively. A negative correlation between BMI and TT was found (r= -0.38, p< 0.0001). No correlation between BMI and E2 and between BMI and bio-T was found. Ultrasound was used in 83.2 % of patients and mammography in 43.6 % (both 28.2 %). Conclusions: Patients with gynecomastia consulted more often for aesthetic reasons and secondarily for breast pain. Detection of galactorrhea was rare. Gonadal examination was normal in most patients and 66.7 % were overweight or obese. Just over half of the patients presented with bilateral gynecomastia and compared with cases of unilateral gynecomastia, they had a longer history of disease, higher BMI and lower TT levels. The most common cause of gynecomastia was idiopathic in all age groups. Persistent pubertal gynecomastia and anabolic steroids consumption were frequent in patients younger than 40 years, and medical drug use and hypogonadism in patients over 40. The presence of gynecomastia may be the expression of an underlying and clinically relevant disease. This highlights the need for an adequate and complete clinical, biochemical and imaging assessment in these patients. Copyright ® 2015 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.


Gagliardino J.J.,National University of La Plata | Gil J.E.C.,National University of La Plata | Faingold M.C.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Litwak L.,Hospital Italiano Of Buenos Aires
Medicina (Argentina) | Year: 2013

As in the rest of the world, there is a significant gap between scientific knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus and the daily practice outcome, in Argentina. Inadequate diabetes control combined with associated cardiovascular risk factors are responsible for an elevated morbid-mortality incidence and the consequent raise in the socioeconomic burden. Some of the factors leading to this situation are the late diagnosis of the disease, the clinical "inertia" (reluctance to prescribe insulin) and the poor education given to the health care team as well as the persons with diabetes. The implementation of a national diabetologic education program targeting health care providers, the persons with diabetes and their families, could contribute to optimize the appropriate insulin prescription, and consequently improve their life quality, while reducing the disease socioeconomic burden. In order to optimize the education program's strategy outcome, insulinization cabinets should be incorporated, the participation of all health systems (public health, social security and private health insurance companies), the media, health sciences, schools and the pharmaceutical industry are needed.


Musso C.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Mingote E.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Durante C.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Brenta G.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | And 8 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Year: 2015

Introduction: In recent years there has been increasing evidence about the relationship between bone and energy metabolism. Osteocalcin is a non-collagenous bone matrix protein synthesized by osteoblasts that locally modulates bone mineralization and is traditionally used as a bone formation marker. Osteocalcin has been shown to have hormonal actions both in in vitro models and in experimental animals. This hormone has the property of regulating insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity as well as beta pancreatic cell proliferation. Aim: To evaluate the existence of correlation between serum osteocalcin levels, insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity markers in an elderly population with metabolic syndrome. Material and methods: Eighty-eight elderly patients were included in our prospective study (68 % women, mean age 73 ± 6; 32 % men, mean age 74 ± 6). They attended the outpatient Endocrinology and Metabolism service at Dr. César Milstein Hospital and met the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria of metabolic syndrome. Serum Osteocalcin, Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), HDL and Triglycerides (TG) were measured. QUICKI and TG/HDL index were calculated. Results: Serum osteocalcin levels were positively associated with HDL (r = 0.213, p = 0.05) and QUICKI (r = 0.212, p = 0.05), and inversely associated with TG (r = -0.218, p < 0.05), TG/HDL index (r = -0.217, p < 0.05) and HbA1c (r = -0.253, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our study showed that in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome, reduced osteocalcin levels were associated with increased insulin sensitivity, decreased insulin resistance indexes and impaired metabolic control. Copyright ® 2015 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.


Brodschi D.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Ponce C.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Barreto A.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Nepote A.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | And 7 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Year: 2014

Materials and methods: We performed a prospective study in patients who presented at the Department of Endocrinology of the Healthcare Unit Dr. Cesar Milstein. Of the total population, 68.8 % were women and the average age was 73 ± 6 years. For the diagnosis of MS, we used the 2009 Joint Interim Statement diagnostic criteria. Information was collected on previous history and medication, and laboratory analyses were performed. The waist / height ratio was also measured. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) and proportions were calculated. For comparisons between men and women, the Student test and Chi-squared test were used.Introduction: The metabolic syndrome (MS) denotes an association of abnormalities that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. With the intention of decreasing this risk, international organizations have dropped the normal range for various parameters, with a consequent increase in the diagnosis of MS. Although the changes related to age are well documented, none of these parameters has been age-adapted.Aims: to characterize MS in the elderly population and to establish possible gender differences.Results: Of the total population, 42.9 % fulfilled 3 criteria for MS, 33.8 % fulfilled 4 criteria and 23.4 % fulfilled 5, with similar distribution in men and women. According to body mass index (BMI), 32.5 % of the population had overweight, 35 % were grade I obese, 22 % were grade II and 9 % were grade III. As regards waist circumference, 98.7 % of the total population exceeded the established cutoffs. The waist/ height ratio exceeded normal values in both genders, being significantly higher in women (p = 0.003).Conclusions: In the elderly, there are no gender differences in the number of components of MS. As for waist circumference, values were similar in both men and women. This finding could lead to redefine the cutoff value in aged woman. The waist / height ratio, a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease, was found to be increased in the entire study population and could be another parameter to be considered for diagnosis of MS. Copyright © 2014 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.


Commendatore V.,Servicio de Endocrinologia Diabetes y Nutricion | Dieuzeide G.,Hospital Nuestra Sra Del Carmen | Faingold C.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Fuente G.,Hospital Carlos Durand | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Clinical Practice | Year: 2013

Aims: To implement a patient registry and collect data related to the care provided to people with type 2 diabetes in six specialized centers of three Latin American countries, measure the quality of such care using a standardized form (QUALIDIAB) that collects information on different quality of care indicators, and analyze the potential of collecting this information for improving quality of care and conducting clinical research. Methods: We collected data on clinical, metabolic and therapeutic indicators, micro- and macrovascular complications, rate of use of diagnostic and therapeutic elements and hospitalization of patients with type 2 diabetes in six diabetes centers, four in Argentina and one each in Colombia and Peru. Results: We analyzed 1157 records from patients with type 2 diabetes (Argentina, 668; Colombia, 220; Peru, 269); 39 records were discarded because of data entry errors or inconsistencies. The data demonstrated frequency performance deficiencies in several procedures, including foot and ocular fundus examination and various cardiovascular screening tests. In contrast, HbA1c and cardiovascular risk factor assessments were performed with a greater frequency than recommended by international guidelines. Management of insulin therapy was sub-optimal, and deficiencies were also noted among diabetes education indicators. Conclusions: Patient registry was successfully implemented in these clinics following an interactive educational program. The data obtained provide useful information as to deficiencies in care and may be used to guide quality of care improvement efforts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Pacenza N.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Pasqualini T.,Hospital Italiano Of Buenos Aires | Gottlieb S.,CONICET | Knoblovits P.,Hospital Italiano Of Buenos Aires | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Endocrinology | Year: 2012

The aim of the study was to establish the characteristics of presentation of 94 patients with Kinelfelter's syndrome (KS) referred to the endocrinologist at different ages. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8). Most of the patients (83.7) showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1 showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. Half of the patients younger than 18 years presented mild neurodevelopmental disorders. The most frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients, and small testes, cryptorchidism, and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. FSH, LH, AMH, and inhibin B levels were normal in prepubertal patients and became abnormal from midpuberty. Most adults were referred for small testes, infertility, and gynecomastia; 43.6 had sexual dysfunction. Testosterone levels were low in 45. Mean stature was above the 50th percentile, and 62.5 had BMI 25.0kg/m2. In conclusion, the diagnosis of Klinefelter syndrome seems to be made earlier nowadays probably because pediatricians are more aware that boys and adolescents with neuro-developmental disorders and cryptorchidism are at increased risk. The increasing use of prenatal diagnosis has also decreased the mean age at diagnosis and allowed to get insight into the evolution of previously undiagnosed cases, which probably represent the mildest forms. In adults average height and weight are slightly higher than those in the normal population. Bone mineral density is mildly affected, more at the spine than at the femoral neck level, in less than half of cases. Copyright © 2012 Néstor Pacenza et al.


Pacenza N.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Pasqualini T.,Hospital Italiano | Gottlieb S.,CONICET | Knoblovits P.,Hospital Italiano | And 5 more authors.
Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Year: 2010

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common chromosomal aberration among men, with an estimated prevalence of 1:600 newborns. It is an X chromosome polysomy, with X disomy being the most common variant (47,XXY). The aim of this study was to establish the characteristics of KS presentation at different ages, including signs and symptoms, laboratory parameters and other diagnostic tests. The diagnosis of KS was more frequent in the age group between 11 and 20 years (46.8%). Most of the patients (83.7%) showed the classic 47,XXY karyotype and 7.1% showed a 47,XXY/46,XY mosaicism. While mean prepubertal height was not different from the control population, it was significantly higher at puberty. Patients consulted most frequently for small testes, infertility and cryptorchidism. In four cases the diagnosis was prenatal. 50% of our patients younger than 18 years presented neurocognitive disorders. The more frequent clinical findings were cryptorchidism in prepubertal patients; small testes, cryptorchidism and gynecomastia in pubertal patients. All our patients in Tanner stage III or more presented small testes. FSH and LH levels were normal in prepubertal patients and increased abnormally at puberty. On the other hand, most adults consulted for small testes, infertility and gynecomastia. 43.6% of patients had decreased libido, sexual and/or ejaculatory dysfunction. In adults average height (178.8 ± 9.0 cm) and weight (83.6 ± 21.0 kg), were higher than in the normal population, however 8 patients (19%) had a height less tan 170 cm. There was 62.5% of overweight / obesity (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m 2) in the whole group of adult patients. 35.2% had eunuchoid proportions. All patients had testicular hypotrophc, with a median testicular volume of 3.5 ml (range 1-8 ml). Total testosterone (TT) levels were normal in 45% of adult patients, showing significant correlation with age. All patients aged 40 or more years had subnormal TT levels. In patients who underwent semen analysis, severe oligospermia and azoospermia were found in 10.7% and 89.3% respectively. Bone mineral densitometry showed low bone mass in 46.4% of cases. No significant differences in the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis were observed among patients with normal or subnormal TT. Copyright 2010 por la Sociedad Argentina de Endocrinología y Metabolismo.


Morosan Allo Y.J.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Rosmarin M.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Urrutia A.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | Faingold M.C.,Servicio de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo | And 2 more authors.
Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2015

Although hypothyroidism is associated with an increased prevalence of psychiatric manifestations, myxedema madness is rarely observed. We report the case of a 62-year-old woman with no prior history of psychiatric disorders, who presented to the emergency department with psychomotor agitation 6 weeks after total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid cancer. Serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) on admission was 62.9 mIU/L and free T4 was < 0.35 ng/dL, indicating severe hypothyroidism. After ruling out other possible causes, the diagnosis of myxedema madness was considered; hence, antipsychotic drug treatment and intravenous levothyroxine were prescribed. Behavioral symptoms returned to normal within 4 days of presentation, while levels of thyroid hormones attained normal values 1 week after admission. Recombinant TSH (Thyrogen®) was used successfully to prevent new episodes of mania due to thyroid hormone withdrawal in further controls for her thyroid cancer. This case illustrates that myxedema madness can occur in the setting of acute hypothyroidism, completely reverting with levothyroxine and antipsychotic treatment. Recombinant TSH may be a useful tool to prevent myxedema madness or any severe manifestation of levothyroxine withdrawal for the follow-up of thyroid cancer. © AE&M all rights reserved.

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