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Romanelli V.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Romanelli V.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras | Belinchon A.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Belinchon A.,Research Center Biomedica En Red Of Enfermedades Raras | And 27 more authors.
American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an overgrowth syndrome characterized by macroglossia,macrosomia, and abdominal wall defects. It is a multigenic disorder caused in most patients by alterations in growth regulatory genes. A small number of individuals with BWS (5-10%) have mutations in CDKN1C, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor of G1 cyclin complexes that functions as a negative regulator of cellular growth and proliferation. Here, we report on eight patients with BWS and CDKN1C mutations and review previous reported cases. We analyzed 72 patients (50 BWS, 17 with isolated hemi-hyperplasia (IH), three with omphalocele, and two with macroglossia) for CDKN1C defects with the aim to search for new mutations and to define genotype-phenotype correlations. Ourfindings suggest that BWS patients with CDKN1C mutations have a different pattern of clinical malformations than those with other molecular defects. Polydactyly, genital abnormalities, extra nipple, and cleft palate are more frequently observed in BWS with mutations in CDKN1C. The clinical observation of these malformations may help to decide which genetic characterization should be undertaken (i.e., CDKN1C screening), thus optimizing the laboratory evaluation for BWS. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Gomez-Carballa A.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Cerezo M.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Heredia C.,University of Santiago de Compostela | Castro-Feijoo L.,University of Santiago de Compostela | And 10 more authors.

Background: There are several known autosomal genes responsible for Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes, including Noonan syndrome (NS) and related disorders (such as LEOPARD, neurofibromatosis type 1), although mutations of these genes do not explain all cases. Due to the important role played by the mitochondrion in the energetic metabolism of cardiac muscle, it was recently proposed that variation in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome could be a risk factor in the Noonan phenotype and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a common clinical feature in Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes. In order to test these hypotheses, we sequenced entire mtDNA genomes in the largest series of patients suffering from Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes analyzed to date (n = 45), most of them classified as NS patients (n = 42). Methods/Principal Findings: The results indicate that the observed mtDNA lineages were mostly of European ancestry, reproducing in a nutshell the expected haplogroup (hg) patterns of a typical Iberian dataset (including hgs H, T, J, and U). Three new branches of the mtDNA phylogeny (H1j1, U5b1e, and L2a5) are described for the first time, but none of these are likely to be related to NS or Ras/MAPK pathway syndromes when observed under an evolutionary perspective. Patterns of variation in tRNA and protein genes, as well as redundant, private and heteroplasmic variants, in the mtDNA genomes of patients were as expected when compared with the patterns inferred from a worldwide mtDNA phylogeny based on more than 8700 entire genomes. Moreover, most of the mtDNA variants found in patients had already been reported in healthy individuals and constitute common polymorphisms in human population groups. Conclusions/Significance: As a whole, the observed mtDNA genome variation in the NS patients was difficult to reconcile with previous findings that indicated a pathogenic role of mtDNA variants in NS. © 2011 Gómez-Carballa et al. Source

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