Servicio Agricola y Ganadero

Santiago, Chile

Servicio Agricola y Ganadero

Santiago, Chile

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Ivanova L.B.,New York Medical College | Tomova A.,New York Medical College | Gonzalez-Acuna D.,University of Concepción | Murua R.,University of the Frontier | And 9 more authors.
Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2014

Summary: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), transmitted by Ixodes spp. ticks, is the causative agent of Lyme disease. Although Ixodes spp. ticks are distributed in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres, evidence for the presence of B.burgdorferi s.l. in South America apart from Uruguay is lacking. We now report the presence of culturable spirochetes with flat-wave morphology and borrelial DNA in endemic Ixodes stilesi ticks collected in Chile from environmental vegetation and long-tailed rice rats (Oligoryzomys longicaudatus). Cultured spirochetes and borrelial DNA in ticks were characterized by multilocus sequence typing and by sequencing five other loci (16S and 23S ribosomal genes, 5S-23S intergenic spacer, flaB, ospC). Phylogenetic analysis placed this spirochete as a new genospecies within the Lyme borreliosis group. Its plasmid profile determined by polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis differed from that of B.burgdorferiB31A3. We propose naming this new South American member of the Lyme borreliosis group B.chilensisVA1 in honor of its country of origin. © 2013 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Sandra I.M.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero | Cecilia R.G.,Austral University of Chile | Ariel S.C.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero | Juan V.E.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero
Bosque | Year: 2011

The presence of the bronze bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus was frst reported in the country in June 2009, as a result of the Forest Surveillance Program of Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (SAG). Sucking insects which cause damage as nymphs and adults feeding of sap on the leaves of their hosts. When populations increase, there is a sharp reduction in leaf photosynthetic rate, which can cause decreased growth and sometimes result in complete defoliation of the tree. The aims of this study were to confrm the detection of T. peregrinus, defne its range and set the host range within the genus Eucalyptus species present in Chile. Thus, sticky yellow traps were installed in the metropolitan region, municipality of Til-Til, and in the region of Valparaíso; furthermore, national surveys were conducted covering the regions where species of Eucalyptus are grown. Nine positives (= presence) were detected in the metropolitan area and one in the region of Valparaíso. The detection of immature and adult T. peregrinus on Eucalyptus camaldulensis indicates that the insect is established in the region. We present actions to be carried out within the offcial control tasks performed by SAG.


Leone P.B.,Austral University of Chile | Cerda J.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero | Sala S.,National University of La Plata | Reid B.,Austral University of Chile
Diatom Research | Year: 2014

Considerable resources have been invested worldwide in response to the spread of the diatom Didymosphenia geminata in rivers and streams. Considering the very low possibility of elimination of an invasive microbe, management has focused on biosecurity protocols, addressed exclusively toward the human role in dispersal (e.g. check, clean dry campaigns and gear-washing stations for recreational users). Natural dispersal by wildlife vectors may also play an important role in the spread of D. geminata and other algal species, potentially limiting or negating the efficacy of biosecurity measures. We investigated the possibility that introduced mink (Neovison vison) may be a potential dispersal agent for D. geminata and other stream diatoms in Chilean Patagonia. Neovison were trapped near a zone of strong and persistent D. geminata blooms in the fifth order Río Simpson, and also in a fourth order upstream tributary, Río Huemules, the latter with smaller, more incipient blooms. Epibiotic D. geminata cells were identified from Neovison at Río Simpson (44% positive, average 791 cells per animal, n=18 animals), and Río Huemules (20% positive, average 40 cells per animal, n=5 animals). Many other species were also observed: 20 genera, 5683 cells per mink in Río Simpson, and 18 genera, 3605 cells per mink in Río Huemules. Navicula, Epithemia, Fragilaria and Placoneis were among the genera most frequently encountered. Neovison are known to prefer the riparian ecotone of streams of all sizes, have the capacity to travel several kilometers upstream and downstream, and possibly as far as 10 km overland to colonize new catchments. Together with an estimated survival time of 60 or more days for D. geminata in a humid environment (e.g. mink fur), Neovison represent a potentially significant factor in the colonization of upstream reaches and adjacent catchments. We comment on the potential for other wildlife vectors in Patagonia, and respective alternative patterns of short- to long-distance dispersal of diatoms in continental waters. Our results suggest that wildlife vectors should be considered in the management of D. geminata, and in the case of Neovison, integrative management of multiple invasive species, and a reassessment of conservation priorities may be necessary. © 2014 The International Society for Diatom Research.


PubMed | Servicio Agricola y Ganadero, University of Witwatersrand and Entomological and Forest Heath Consultancy
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zootaxa | Year: 2015

Entedon magnificus (Girault & Dodd) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Entedoninae) is recorded as a gregarious larval endoparasitoid of Gonipterus weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), significant pests of Eucalyptus trees. Entedon magnificus is re-described and illustrated based on females and males from Australia and Tasmania.


Davis E.F.,University of Magallanes | Anderson C.B.,University of North Texas | Valenzuela A.E.J.,CONICET | Cabello J.L.,University of Magallanes | Soto N.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero
Annales Zoologici Fennici | Year: 2012

Improvement of invasive American mink (Neovison vison) trapping methods in the Cape Horn Archipelago is a priority for wildlife managers. We assessed the use of cubby sets (16 × 16 × 30 cm plywood boxes) containing body gripping lethal traps to control mink along the Beagle Channel. We compared effectiveness, selectivity and weather condition resistance between two cubby set designs: (i) open front, and (ii) restricted entrance (lidded with a 6 cm aperture). The effectiveness of bait was evaluated between fresh versus canned fish. Thirteen minks and no non-target species were captured with the restricted entrance systems, as compared with three minks and 25 non-target individuals (six species) in open front cubby sets. Fresh fish resulted in more captures than canned fish, and lids made traps less susceptible to false activation. Traps inside restricted entrance cubby sets, baited with fresh fish were found to be most suitable for mink control and/or eradication efforts. © Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board 2012.


Duran X.A.,Catholic University of Temuco | Ulloa R.B.,Catholic University of Temuco | Carrillo J.A.,Catholic University of Temuco | Contreras J.L.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero | Bastidas M.T.,Catholic University of Temuco
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L.) contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.). In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1), partial exclusion (T2) and free pollination (T0) with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.


Ocampo F.C.,CONICET | Mondaca J.,Servicio Agricola y Ganadero
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

The Aclopinae from Argentina and Chile are revised and a redescription of the subfamily and type genus Aclopus Erichson are presented. Aclopus vittatus Erichson is designated as the type species of Aclopus. Two new genera, Gracilaclopus Ocampo and Mondaca new genus, and Desertaclopus Ocampo and Mondaca new genus, are described. Gracilaclopus includes eight species: G. bidentulus Ocampo & Mondaca new species, G. caceresi Ocampo & Mondaca new species, G. candelariae Ocampo & Mondaca new species, G. crepuscularis Ocampo & Mondaca new species, G. electricus Ocampo & Mondaca new species, G. morochus Ocampo & Mondaca new species, G. nigroscutatus Ocampo & Mondaca new species, and G. parvulus (Ohaus) new combination. The genus Desertaclopus includes three species: D. atacamensis Ocampo & Mondaca new species, D. lucasi Ocampo & Mondaca new species, and D. marcosi Ocampo & Mondaca new species. A neotype is designated for Aclopus parvulus Ohaus (now G. parvulus). A key and diagnostic characters for all Argentinean and Chilean aclopine genera and species are provided. Based on a detailed morphological study, the Australian Phaenognatha Hope and the Neotropical Neophaenognatha Allsopp are removed from the Aclopinae and transferred to Scarabaeidae incertae sedis. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press.


Navia D.,University of Brasilia | Mendonca R.S.,University of Brasilia | Ferragut F.,Polytechnic University of Valencia | Miranda L.C.,University of Brasilia | And 3 more authors.
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2013

Defining the taxonomic identity of organisms is a prerequisite for their study, and in the case of economically important species, misidentification may lead to the application of inappropriate prevention and control strategies. Flat mites of the Brevipalpus genus include several crop pests and the systematics of these mites represents a challenge for acarologists. Many of the most economically important Brevipalpus species have repeatedly been inaccurately identified. Such problematic classification has been attributed to the likely occurrence of cryptic species in the genus. In this study, we used an integrative approach that combined molecular analyses, including sequence-based species delimitation, with detailed morphological identification using traits that have recently showed to be taxonomically informative. Sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) were obtained from individuals collected from host plants belonging to 14 genera and 13 families across 29 locations in the Americas (Brazil, Chile, USA). The phylogenetic analyses included previously published Brevipalpus sequences from GenBank, and the final data set was classified into 44 haplotypes. Six putative species were recognised by COI-based species delimitation analysis, and morphological evidence supported each of these species. The integrative approach revealed the occurrence of cryptic species in the Brevipalpus genus and contributed to the clarification of previously noted incongruences. The results presented here allow for the evaluation of taxonomic characteristics in a phylogenetic context and indicate new characters for the differentiation of Brevipalpus species. In addition, Brevipalpus incognitus n. sp. Ferragut & Navia, a cryptic species detected in this study, is described based on morphological and molecular traits. Implications of the advances in Brevipalpus systematics presented herein with respect to pest management are briefly discussed. © 2013 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.


Rodriguez F.,University of Concepción | Rodriguez F.,Andrés Bello University | Moreno J.,Andrés Bello University | Ortega R.,University of Concepción | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases | Year: 2012

Polymerase chain reaction confirmed that two gull species in Talcahuano, Chile, shed Salmonella. Fecal samples from resident Larus dominicanus had prevalences of 51.2% for Salmonella spp. and 26.3% for Salmonella Enteritidis. Prevalences in samples from migratory Leucophaeus pipixcan were 75% and 30% respectively. Risks to public health may exist. © Wildlife Disease Association 2012.


This article analyses the potential benefits of disseminating and implementing the One Health concept at the country level. It explores the need to improve administrative structures, organise inter-agency relationships, build the capacity of the veterinary profession and mainstream the issues of environment and climate change. It also stresses the importance of demographic analysis in disease control and prevention. This article contributes to the discussion by Veterinary Services on how to mainstream the One Health concept.

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