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Madrid C.,Service of Oral Surgery | Bouferrache K.,Service of Oral Surgery | Abarca M.,Service of Oral Surgery | Jaques B.,University of Lausanne | Broome M.,University of Lausanne
Oral Oncology | Year: 2010

Bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is defined as exposed necrotic bone appearing in the jaws of patients treated by systemic IV or oral BPs never irradiated in the head and neck area and that has persisted for more than 8 weeks. More than 90% of cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw have been in patients with cancer who received IV-BPs. The estimate of cumulative incidence of BRONJ in cancer patients with IV-BPs ranges from 0.8% to 18.6%. The pathogenesis of BRONJ appeared related to the potent osteoblast-inhibiting properties of BPs which act by blocking osteoclast recruitment, decreasing osteoclast activity and promoting osteoclast apoptosis. Dental extractions are the most potent local risk factor. Cancer patients wearing a denture could also be at increased risk of BRONJ. Non-healing mucosal breaches caused by dentures could be a portal for the oral flora to access bone, while the oral mucosa of patients on IV-BPs could also be defective. Whether periodontal disease is a risk factor for BRONJ remains controversial. Preventive measures are fundamental. Nevertheless, some teams have questioned its cost-effectiveness. The perceived limitations of surgical therapy of BRONJ led to the restriction of aggressive surgery to symptomatic patients with stage 3 BRONJ. The evidence-based literature on BRONJ is growing but there are still many controversial aspects. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Madrid C.,Service of Oral Surgery | Madrid C.,University of Lausanne | Abarca M.,Service of Oral Surgery | Abarca M.,University of Lausanne | And 2 more authors.
Oral Oncology | Year: 2010

Osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible is the most serious and severe side effect of combined treatment of head and neck tumors. A new theory for the pathogenesis of ORN has been proposed relating it to a fibro-atrophic mechanism including free radical formation, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, microvascular thrombosis leading to bone and tissue necrosis. Risk factors mainly include radiation related risk factors, surgery and, tobacco and alcohol abuse. Removing of diseased teeth after and even probably after radiotherapy is generally considered the main risk factor in ORN. Conversely, steroid use before or after radiation may have a protective effect related to the inhibition of the initial inflammatory phase of ORN. Prevention of ORN is still based on the preventive extractions of decayed or periodontally compromised teeth before radiotherapy. Based on the current understanding of ORN pathophysiology, new preventive and therapeutic protocols have been suggested for mild to moderate stages. Free tissue surgical transfers is the treatment of choice of severe, extensive and long established ORN. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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