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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Perazzoli G.,Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine IBIMER | Prados J.,Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine IBIMER | Prados J.,University of Granada | Ortiz R.,University of Jaen | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background: The use of temozolomide (TMZ) has improved the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients. However, TMZ resistance may be one of the main reasons why treatment fails. Although this resistance has frequently been linked to the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) it seems that this enzyme is not the only molecular mechanism that may account for the appearance of drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme patients as the mismatch repair (MMR) complex, P-glycoprotein, and/or the presence of cancer stem cells may also be implicated. Methods: Four nervous system tumor cell lines were used to analyze the modulation of MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation by TMZ treatment. Furthermore, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate the MGMT promoter and O(6)-benzylguanine to block GMT activity. In addition, MMR complex and P-glycoprotein expression were studied before and after TMZ exposure and correlated with MGMT expression. Finally, the effect of TMZ exposure on CD133 expression was analyzed. Results: Our results showed two clearly differentiated groups of tumor cells characterized by low (A172 and LN229) and high (SF268 and SK-N-SH) basal MGMT expression. Interestingly, cell lines with no MGMT expression and low TMZ IC50 showed a high MMR complex expression, whereas cell lines with high MGMT expression and high TMZ IC50 did not express the MMR complex. In addition, modulation of MGMT expression in A172 and LN229 cell lines was accompanied by a significant increase in the TMZ IC50, whereas no differences were observed in SF268 and SK-N-SH cell lines. In contrast, P-glycoprotein and CD133 was found to be unrelated to TMZ resistance in these cell lines. Conclusions: These results may be relevant in understanding the phenomenon of TMZ resistance, especially in glioblastoma multiforme patients laking MGMT expression, and may also aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of TMZ in glioblastoma multiforme patients. © 2015 Perazzoli et al. Source

Simo M.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge And Ico Duran ynals | Velasco R.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge And Ico Duran ynals | Graus F.,Service of Neurology | Verger E.,Service of Radiation Oncology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Neuro-Oncology | Year: 2012

Epilepsy in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients is common. Hematological toxicity is a potential side effect of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and a frequent limiting-dose effect of temozolomide (TMZ). The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of AEDs on thrombocytopenia in GBM patients treated with radiotherapy and TMZ. A cohort of 101 newly diagnosed GBM patients treated with radiotherapy and TMZ was reviewed. Clinical data, presence of seizures, AEDs use, platelet count, and accumulated TMZ dose were analyzed at each cycle. Thrombocytopenia was operationalized as a continuous platelet count and a dichotomic variable (cut-off\100.000/ mm3). This cut-off represents the threshold beyond which TMZ treatment is modified. A linear and a probit pooled cross-sectional regression analysis were used to study the impact of age, gender, AEDs, and accumulated TMZ on thrombocytopenia. Impact of AEDs on survival was also analyzed. Thirty-five patients (35%) presented seizures at onset and 18 (27%) during follow-up. Seven (13%) needed two or more AEDs for seizure control. Grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia was found in 8%. Decrease in platelet count was related to accumulated TMZ (p\0.001), age (p\0.001), and valproate (p = 0.004). Platelet count \100.000/mm3 was only associated with accumulated TMZ (p = 0.001). Recursive Partitioning Analysis prognostic class was the only variable with significant impact on survival. Valproate and age had an independent negative effect on total platelet count, although neither had an effect on critical thrombocytopenia (\100.000/mm3). Therefore, the systematic withhold of valproate inGBMpatients might not be justified. Nevertheless, this negative effect may be taken into account especially in elderly patients. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Melguizo C.,Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine IBIMER | Prados J.,Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine IBIMER | Prados J.,University of Granada | Luque R.,Service of Medical Oncology | And 6 more authors.
Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

Purpose: Multidrug resistance is one of the major obstacles to the successful treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). An ability to identify molecular markers of drug resistance in peripheral blood cells in order to better target treatment would therefore be extremely useful in selecting therapy protocols for patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether expression of resistance genes (MDR1, MRP3 and LRP) can predict clinical outcome in NSCLC patients treated with paclitaxel and carboplatin. Methods: Peripheral blood samples were obtained from lung cancer patients before and after chemotherapy and expression of the resistance gene in polymononuclear cells was detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results were correlated with treatment response and overall survival, which was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: MDR1 expression levels in PMNs rose rapidly within 24 h post-administration of paclitaxel and carboplatin, whereas MRP and LRP expression levels remained unchanged. However, no significant correlation was observed between MDR1 expression and the patients' survival or treatment response. Conclusions: Modulation of MDR1 gene expression in PMNs after lung cancer treatment with paclitaxel and carboplatin cannot be used as a prognosis marker in these patients. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Ortiz R.,University of Granada | Ortiz R.,University of Jaen | Prados J.,University of Granada | Melguizo C.,University of Granada | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2012

This work aimed to develop a new therapeutic approach to increase the effcacy of 5-fuorouracil (5-FU) in the treatment of advanced or recurrent colon cancer. 5-FU-loaded biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (PCL NPs) were combined with the cytotoxic suicide gene E (combined therapy). The SW480 human cancer cell line was used to assay the combined therapeutic strategy. This cell line was established from a primary adenocarcinoma of the colon and is characterized by an intrinsically high resistance to apoptosis that correlates with its resistance to 5-FU. 5-FU was absorbed into the matrix of the PCL NPs during synthesis using the interfacial polymer disposition method. The antitumor activity of gene E from the phage ΦX174 was tested by generating a stable clone (SW480/12/E). In addition, the localization of E protein and its activity in mitochondria were analyzed. We found that the incorporation of 5-FU into PCL NPs (which show no cytotoxicity alone), significantly improved the drug's anticancer activity, reducing the proliferation rate of colon cancer cells by up to 40-fold when compared with the nonincorporated drug alone. Furthermore, E gene expression sensitized colon cancer cells to the cytotoxic action of the 5-FU-based nanomedicine. Our findings demonstrate that despite the inherent resistance of SW480 to apoptosis, E gene activity is mediated by an apoptotic phenomenon that includes modulation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 expression and intense mitochondrial damage. Finally, a strongly synergistic antiproliferative effect was observed in colon cancer cells when E gene expression was combined with the activity of the 5-FU-loaded PCL NPs, thereby indicating the potential therapeutic value of the combined therapy. © 2012 Ortiz et al. Source

De Juan Jimenez I.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Esteban Cardenosa E.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Palanca Suela S.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | Barragan Gonzalez E.,Hospital Universitario La Paz | And 9 more authors.
Familial Cancer | Year: 2012

The true prevalence of BRCA1/BRCA2 (BRCAs) germline mutations in sporadic breast or ovarian cancer (SBC/SOC) in Caucasian population is not well established. The aim of the study is to establish the prevalence of BRCAs mutations in SBC to ponder its relevance in the programs of genetic counseling in cancer and to explore the genotype-phenotype relationship of these particular breast cancers. The study was performed in 495 SBC. We sought 46 BRCA1 and 53 BRCA2 pathogenic mutations reported in the Spanish population. We followed a high resolution melting method performed in the LightCycler 480 (Roche Diagnostics) for the screening of these Spanish mutations using 49 primer pairs. Eight different deleterious mutations, one of them novel, were detected in nine patients, five without family history of BC/OC, what yields a true prevalence of 1.05% for BRCAs mutations in SBC. Furthermore, we found 18 unknown variants. Larger tumour size (T > 1) and earlier presentation are the independent parameters associated with the presence of BRCAs pathogenic mutations in SBC (P < 0.01) and the BRCA1 mutations carriers develop steroid-receptors negative tumors. Our results indicate that the true prevalence of BRCAs germline deleterious mutations in SBC of Spaniards is low. However, this does not lessens its relevance since the presence of BRCAs mutations in SBC could represent circa 16% of total BRCAs mutations detected in BC. SBCs of BRCAs mutation carriers have phenotype more aggressiveness than SBC without BRCAs mutation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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