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Hospital de Órbigo, Spain

Giulieri S.,University of Lausanne | Jaton K.,University of Lausanne | Cometta A.,Service of Internal Medicine | Trellu L.T.,University of Geneva | Greub G.,University of Lausanne
FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Molecular diagnosis using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may allow earlier diagnosis of rickettsiosis. We developed a duplex real-time PCR that amplifies (1) DNA of any rickettsial species and (2) DNA of both typhus group rickettsia, that is, Rickettsia prowazekii and Rickettsia typhi. Primers and probes were selected to amplify a segment of the 16S rRNA gene of Rickettsia spp. for the pan-rickettsial PCR and the citrate synthase gene (gltA) for the typhus group rickettsia PCR. Analytical sensitivity was 10 copies of control plasmid DNA per reaction. No cross-amplification was observed when testing human DNA and 22 pathogens or skin commensals. Real-time PCR was applied to 16 clinical samples. Rickettsial DNA was detected in the skin biopsies of three patients. In one patient with severe murine typhus, the typhus group PCR was positive in a skin biopsy from a petechial lesion and seroconversion was later documented. The two other patients with negative typhus group PCR suffered from Mediterranean and African spotted fever, respectively; in both cases, skin biopsy was performed on the eschar. Our duplex real-time PCR showed a good analytical sensitivity and specificity, allowing early diagnosis of rickettsiosis among three patients, and recognition of typhus in one of them. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Source

Labarga P.,Charles III University of Madrid | Soriano V.,Charles III University of Madrid | Caruz A.,University of Jaen | Poveda E.,Charles III University of Madrid | And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: IL28B polymorphisms influence both the rate of spontaneous hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance and response to interferon α (IFNα)-based therapy. This observation has been reproduced in HIV-co-infected individuals. Controversy exists about the impact of IL28B alleles on HCV load. METHODS: CoRIS is a nationwide, open cohort of newly diagnosed HIV-1 adults in Spain. In the subset of HCV-co-infected individuals, the relationship between plasma HCV-RNA and IL28B (rs12979860) genotypes was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 4670 HIV-1-infected patients had been included in CoRIS up to June 2010. All were naive for IFNα. HCV antibodies were reactive in 895 (19%). Of them, 289 specimens were available and tested positive for plasma HCV-RNA, with median values of 959 900 IU/ml. The rs12979860 genotype distribution in HCV viremic patients was CC 45%, CT 42.2% and TT 12.8%. The median plasma HCV-RNA according to IL28B genotypes was: CC 1 385 000, CT 848 939 and TT 251 189 IU/ml (P = 0.006). The percentage of patients with HCV-RNA more than 600 000 IU/ml was: CC 67.7%, CT 56.6% and TT 35.1% (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, IL28B CC/CT genotypes, infection with HCV genotypes 1/4 and prior intravenous drug users were independent predictors of HCV-RNA more than 600 000 IU/ml. CONCLUSION: HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with the C allele (CC/CT) at rs12979860 show significantly higher plasma HCV-RNA load than TT carriers. Notably, plasma HCV-RNA levels associated with poorer response to IFNα-based therapy are significantly more frequent in CC/CT than TT carriers. Hypothetically, patients harboring the rs12979860 allele C could display a lower activity of endogenous IFNα, allowing higher HCV replication while keeping an enhanced susceptibility to exogenous IFNα therapy. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source

Martinez-Garcia M.A.,Pneumology Unit | Martinez-Garcia M.A.,CIBER ISCIII | Soler-Cataluna J.J.,Pneumology Unit | Sanz Y.D.,Service of Internal Medicine | And 4 more authors.
Chest | Year: 2011

Background: Previous studies have shown a high prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with moderate to severe COPD. However, the factors associated with bronchiectasis remain unknown in these patients. The objective of this study is to identify the factors associated with bronchiectasis in patients with moderate to severe COPD. Methods: Consecutive patients with moderate (50% < FEV 1 ≤ 70%) or severe (FEV 1 ≤ 50%) COPD were included prospectively. All subjects filled out a clinical questionnaire, including information about exacerbations. Peripheral blood samples were obtained, and lung function tests were performed in all patients. Sputum samples were provided for monthly microbiologic analysis for 6 months. All the tests were performed in a stable phase for at least 6 weeks. High-resolution CT scans of the chest were used to diagnose bronchiectasis. Results: Ninety-two patients, 51 with severe COPD, were included. Bronchiectasis was present in 53 patients (57.6%). The variables independently associated with the presence of bronchiectasis were severe airflow obstruction (OR, 3.87; 95% CI, 1.38-10.5; P =.001), isolation of a potentially pathogenic microorganism (PPM) (OR, 3.59; 95% CI, 1.3-9.9; P =.014), and at least one hospital admission due to COPD exacerbations in the previous year (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.07-8.77; P =.037). Conclusion: We found an elevated prevalence of bronchiectasis in patients with moderate to severe COPD, and this was associated with severe airflow obstruction, isolation of a PPM from sputum, and at least one hospital admission for exacerbations in the previous year. © 2011 American College of Chest Physicians. Source

Mnafgui K.,University of Sfax | Kaanich F.,University of Sfax | Derbali A.,University of Sfax | Hamden K.,University of Sfax | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

The present study investigated the effect of treating diabetic rats with eugenol (EG). In vitro enzyme activity was measured in the presence of eugenol, and it was found to inhibit pancreatic α-amylase (IC50=62.53g/mL) and lipase (IC50=72.34g/mL) as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity (IC50=130.67g/mL). In vivo, EG reduced the activity of amylase in serum, pancreas and intestine also the peak level of glucose by 60% compared to diabetic rats. Furthermore, eugenol similar to acarbose reduced serum glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipase and ACE levels. In addition, treatments with EG showed notable decrease in serum total-cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels with an increase of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Overall, EG significantly reverted back to near normal the values of the biochemical biomarkers such as transaminases (AST&ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activities, total-bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid rates. © 2013 Informa UK Ltd. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted. Source

Calbo E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Alsina M.,Service of Immunology | Rodriguez-Carballeira M.,Service of Internal Medicine | Lite J.,Service of Microbiology | Garau J.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2010

The aim of our study was to analyse the impact of time from onset of symptoms on the systemic cytokine concentrations in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia. Adults with severe pneumococcal pneumonia were prospectively included. At admission, vital signs, time from onset of pneumonia symptoms and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-1ra were recorded. 32 patients were included; 13 patients had <48 h of evolution and 19 patients had been sick for >48 h. The group with a longer time of evolution presented higher plasmatic levels of TNF-α (19.1±8.5 versus 35.5±26 pg·mL-1), fibrinogen (6±1.8 versus 9±2); CRP (130±85 versus 327±131) and SAA (678±509 versus 984±391). Concentrations of TNF-α were associated with the presence of bacteraemia, initial blood pressure <90 mmHg and with a lower oxygen saturation at admission. Likewise, TNF-α levels were correlated with concentrations of IL-1β (r=0.49), IL-6 (r=0.41) and IL-8 (r=0.40). In pneumococcal pneumonia, patients with a longer time of evolution presented with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a higher expression of acute phase proteins, suggesting a sustained release of pneumococcal antigens over time. Copyright©ERS Journals Ltd 2010. Source

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