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Le Bosc-Roger-en-Roumois, France

Perrault I.,University of Paris Descartes | Hanein S.,University of Paris Descartes | Delphin N.,University of Paris Descartes | Fares-Taie L.,University of Paris Descartes | And 12 more authors.
Human Mutation | Year: 2010

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe retinal degeneration. It may present as a congenital stationary cone-rod dystrophy (LCA type I) or a progressive yet severe rod-cone dystrophy (LCA type II). Twelve LCA genes have been identified, three of which account for Type I and nine for LCA type II. All proteins encoded by these genes but two are preferentially expressed in the retina and are responsible for non-syndromic LCA only. By contrast LCA5 and CEP290 are widely expressed and mutations in this latter result in a variety of phenotypes from non-syndromic retinal degeneration to pleiotropic disorders including senior-Loken (SNLS) and Joubert syndromes (JBTS). Recently, mutations in the widely expressed gene SPATA7 were reported to cause LCA or juvenile retinitis pigmentosa. The purpose of this study was i) to determine the level of expression of two major alternative SPATA7 transcripts in a large range of tissues and ii) to assess the involvement of this novel gene in a large cohort of unrelated patients affected with LCA (n = 134). Here, we report high SPATA7 expression levels in retina, brain and testis with differential expression of the two transcripts. SPATA7 mutations were identified in few families segregating non-syndromic LCA (n = 4/134). Six different mutations were identified, four of which are novel; All affected both SPATA7 transcripts. The clinical evaluation of patients suggested that SPATA7 mutations account for the rod-cone dystrophy type of the disease. ©2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Papon J.F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Papon J.F.,University Paris Est Creteil | Perrault I.,University of Paris Descartes | Coste A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 12 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe inherited retinal degeneration. Isolated forms of LCA frequently result from mutation of the CEP290 gene which is expressed in various ciliated tissues. Methods: Seven LCA patients with CEP290 mutations were investigated to study otorhinolaryngologic phenotype and respiratory cilia. Nasal biopsies and brushing were performed to study cilia ultrastructure using transmission electron microscopy and ciliary beating using high-speed videomicroscopy, respectively. CEP290 expression in normal nasal epithelium was studied using real-time RT-PCR. Results: When electron microscopy was feasible (5/7), high levels of respiratory cilia defects were detected. The main defects concerned dynein arms, central complex and/or peripheral microtubules. All patients had a rarefaction of ciliated cells and a variable proportion of short cilia. Frequent but moderate and heterogeneous clinical and ciliary beating abnormalities were found. CEP290 was highly expressed in the neural retina and nasal epithelial cells compared with other tissues. Discussion: These data provide the first clear demonstration of respiratory cilia ultrastructural defects in LCA patients with CEP290 mutations. The frequency of these findings in LCA patients along with the high expression of CEP290 in nasal epithelium suggest that CEP290 has an important role in the proper development of both the respiratory ciliary structures and the connecting cilia of photoreceptors. The presence of respiratory symptoms in patients could represent additional clinical criteria to direct CEP290 genotyping of patients affected with the genetically heterogeneous cone-rod dystrophy subtype of LCA. Source

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