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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Fakhouri F.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Fremeaux-Bacchi V.,Service dImmunologie Biologique | Noel L.-H.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Cook H.T.,Imperial College London | Pickering M.C.,Imperial College London
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2010

Several distinct pathological patterns of glomerular inflammation are associated with abnormal regulation of the complement system, specifically, with dysregulation of the alternative pathway of the complement system. However, these conditions share the pathological finding of complement C3 (C3) deposited within the glomerulus in the absence of substantial immunoglobulin. This finding has alerted us and others to the possible presence of genetic and acquired complement dysregulation in individual patients. This article summarizes our current understanding of the relationship between dysregulation of the complement system and glomerular inflammation. Here, we suggest that glomerular pathologies that are characterized by the isolated deposition of C3 could usefully be classified by the term C3 glomerulopathy. In our view, this classification would alert the pathologist and nephrologist to the importance of screening for acquired and genetic abnormalities in complement regulation. In the future, it could help to identify individuals who might benefit from therapeutic inhibition of the complement system. © 2010 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Zuber J.,Service de Transplantation Renale Adulte | Fakhouri F.,Nantes University Hospital Center | Roumenina L.T.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Loirat C.,Service de Nephrologie | Fremeaux-Bacchi V.,Service dImmunologie Biologique
Nature Reviews Nephrology | Year: 2012

In the past decade, a large body of evidence has accumulated in support of the critical role of dysregulation of the alternative complement pathway in atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (aHUS) and C3 glomerulopathies. These findings have paved the way for innovative therapeutic strategies based on complement blockade, and eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting the human complement component 5, is now widely used to treat aHUS. In this article, we review 28 case reports and preliminary data from 37 patients enrolled in prospective trials of eculizumab treatment for episodes of aHUS involving either native or transplanted kidneys. Eculizumab may be considered as an optimal first-line therapy when the diagnosis of aHUS is unequivocal and this treatment has the potential to rescue renal function when administered early after onset of the disease. However, a number of important issues require further study, including the appropriate duration of treatment according to an individual's genetic background and medical history, the optimal strategy to prevent post-transplantation recurrence of aHUS and a cost-efficacy analysis. Data regarding the efficacy of eculizumab in the control of C3 glomerulopathies are more limited and less clear, but several observations suggest that eculizumab may act on the most inflammatory forms of this disorder. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Pell G.,Service de Nephrologie Transplantation Renale | Shweke N.,Service de Nephrologie Transplantation Renale | Van Huyen J.-P.D.,Service danatomo pathologie | Tricot L.,Service de Nephrologie Transplantation Renale | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2011

Intravenous injection of angiogenesis-inhibitor drugs is used widely to treat cancers. Associated renal complications primarily involve proteinuria and hypertension, and thrombotic microangiopathies also have been described. Intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy currently is used by ophthalmologists to treat neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. However, there is some evidence that intravitreal anti-VEGF injections may result in systemic absorption, with the potential for injury in organs that are reliant on VEGF, such as the kidney. We report the first case to our knowledge of a patient who developed an acute decrease in kidney function, nonimmune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia with schistocytes, and thrombocytopenia after 4 intravitreal injections of ranibizumab. Light microscopy of a kidney biopsy specimen showed segmental duplications of glomerular basement membranes with endothelial swelling and several recanalized arteriolar thrombi. Because of the increasing use of intravitreal anti-VEGF agents, ophthalmologists and nephrologists should be aware of the associated risk of kidney disease. Early detection is crucial so that intravitreal injections can be stopped before severe kidney disease occurs. © 2011 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Lapeyraque A.-L.,CHU Sainte Justine | Fremeaux-Bacchi V.,Service dImmunologie Biologique | Robitaille P.,CHU Sainte Justine
Pediatric Nephrology | Year: 2011

Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is a rare, chronic, life-threatening disease due to complement dysregulation. The use of early-onset plasma therapy is recommended, but optimal long-term treatment regimen is not well defined. Eculizumab, a monoclonal humanized anti-C5 antibody, has shown success in patients with aHUS. We report a 7-year-old girl with aHUS associated with factor H mutations successfully treated with eculizumab. Weekly plasma infusion (PI) of 25-30 ml/kg with short-term intensified PI during aHUS exacerbations was effective for 4.3 years. Progressive mild renal failure (stage 2) was attributed to chronic glomerular lesions. Subsequently, she exhibited aHUS exacerbation unresponsive to intensified PI. Eculizumab was initiated at 600 mg, resulting in immediate and complete inhibition of terminal complement activation. During the week following treatment, we observed a complete reversal of aHUS activity. She has been receiving 600 mg eculizumab every 2 weeks for the last 12 months. She had no aHUS exacerbation, and serum creatinine level returned to normal. In this patient, eculizumab led to control of PI-resistant aHUS exacerbation and chronic microangiopathic hemolytic activity. Clinical trials are ongoing to assess the safety and efficacy of this drug in the management of aHUS. © 2010 IPNA.

Nilsson S.C.,Skane University Hospital | Kalchishkova N.,Skane University Hospital | Trouw L.A.,Leiden University | Fremeaux-Bacchi V.,Service dImmunologie Biologique | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2010

The complement system is regulated by inhibitors such as factor I (FI), a serine protease that degrades activated complement factors C4b and C3b in the presence of specific cofactors. Mutations and polymorphisms in FI and its cofactors are associated with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). All 14 complement factor I mutations associated with aHUS analyzed in this study were heterozygous and generated premature stop codons (six) or amino acid substitutions (eight). Almost all of the mutants were expressed by human embryonic kidney 293 cells but only six mutants were secreted into the medium, three of which were at lower levels than WT. The remaining eight mutants were not secreted but sensitive to deglycosylation with endoglycosidase H, indicating that they were retained early in the secretory pathway. Six secreted mutants were purified and five of them were functionally altered in degradation of C4b/C3b in the fluid-phase in the presence of various cofactors and on endothelial cells. Three mutants cleaved surfacebound C3b less efficiently than WT. The D501N mutant was severely impaired both in solution and on surface irrespective of the cofactor used. In conclusion, mutations in complement factor I affect both secretion and function of FI, which leads to impaired regulation of the complement system in aHUS. © 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

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