Service dHygiene Hospitaliere

Clermont-Ferrand, France

Service dHygiene Hospitaliere

Clermont-Ferrand, France

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Hennequin C.,CNRS Microorganisms Laboratory: Genome and Environment | Aumeran C.,CNRS Microorganisms Laboratory: Genome and Environment | Aumeran C.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Robin F.,CHU Clermont Ferrand | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Objectives: To characterize a CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate that was identified during an outbreak involving 16 patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography between December 2008 and August 2009. The strain was also detected in one endoscope used for these examinations. Methods: Disc diffusion assays, MICs and isoelectric focusing were used to characterize the plasmidic CTX-M-15 β-lactamase. PCRs were used to check for the presence of genes associated with virulence or antibiotic resistance. Antibiotic tolerance tests and plasmid transfer were carried out in both planktonic and biofilm conditions. Results: The strain belonged to sequence type 14 and to the virulent capsular serotype K2, but produced little glucuronic acid. It contained a 62.5 kb conjugative plasmid carrying the blaCTX-M-15, blaOXA-1 and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes and harboured few virulence genes (uge, wabG, kfu and mrkD). The strain was highly resistant to cefotaxime (MIC 516 mg/L) and the presence of this antibiotic at sub-MIC concentrations enhanced biofilm formation. The isolate was susceptible to ofloxacin (MIC 2 mg/L), but the bactericidal effect of this antibiotic was greater in planktonic cultures and 6 h old biofilm than in 24 or 48 h old biofilms. The K. pneumoniae strain was notable for its ability to transfer its plasmid, especially in biofilm conditions, in which the rate of plasmid transfer was about 0.5/donor. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the ability of this strain to survive in a hospital environment and to transfer its extended-spectrum β-lactamase-encoding plasmid. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Mrozek N.,Service de Nephrologie Reanimation Medicale | Lautrette A.,Service de Nephrologie Reanimation Medicale | Lautrette A.,University Clermont 1 | Aumeran C.,University Clermont 1 | And 7 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess whether an isolated positive catheter culture is predictive of a subsequent bloodstream infection in intensive care unit patients. Design: Retrospective clinical study between 2000 and 2007. Setting: Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Subjects: All arterial, central venous, and dialysis catheters yielding selected pathogenic microorganisms from isolated positive catheter cultures. Positive catheter culture was defined by a catheter tip culture performed with the Brun-Buisson technique yielding 103 colony-forming units/mL; isolated positive catheter culture by a positive catheter culture without concomitant bloodstream infection due to the microorganism of the positive catheter culture evidenced within 48 hrs before or after catheter removal; and subsequent bloodstream infection by a bloodstream infection developing between 48 hrs and 30 days after catheter removal and due to a selected pathogenic microorganism of an isolated positive catheter culture. Active antibiotic therapy was active if at least one of the antibiotics administered was effective against the selected pathogenic microorganism of the positive catheter culture. Intervention: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS:: The end point of the study was the ratio of the number of subsequent bloodstream infections to that of selected pathogenic microorganisms isolated from positive catheter culture 30 days after catheter removal. A total of 138 isolated positive catheter cultures for 149 selected pathogenic micro-organisms was included in the study. Only two cases (1.3%) of subsequent bloodstream infection were evidenced, one resulting from Escherichia coli and the other from Staphylococcus epidermidis. The incidence of subsequent bloodstream infection did not differ with regard to the presence or absence of active antibiotics at catheter removal: zero of 23 vs. two of 121 (p = 1), respectively. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the risk of subsequent bloodstream infection in intensive care unit patients when the Brun-Buisson technique is used to define isolated positive catheter culture is low. Copyright © 2011 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Guerin C.,University of Lyon | Reignier J.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Richard J.-C.,University of Lyon | Beuret P.,Reanimation Polyvalente | And 21 more authors.
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Previous trials involving patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have failed to show a beneficial effect of prone positioning during mechanical ventilatory support on outcomes. We evaluated the effect of early application of prone positioning on outcomes in patients with severe ARDS. METHODS: In this multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled trial, we randomly assigned 466 patients with severe ARDS to undergo prone-positioning sessions of at least 16 hours or to be left in the supine position. Severe ARDS was defined as a ratio of the partial pressure of arterial oxygen to the fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) of less than 150 mm Hg, with an FIO2 of at least 0.6, a positive end-expiratory pressure of at least 5 cm of water, and a tidal volume close to 6 ml per kilogram of predicted body weight. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who died from any cause within 28 days after inclusion. RESULTS: A total of 237 patients were assigned to the prone group, and 229 patients were assigned to the supine group. The 28-day mortality was 16.0% in the prone group and 32.8% in the supine group (P<0.001). The hazard ratio for death with prone positioning was 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.63). Unadjusted 90-day mortality was 23.6% in the prone group versus 41.0% in the supine group (P<0.001), with a hazard ratio of 0.44 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.67). The incidence of complications did not differ significantly between the groups, except for the incidence of cardiac arrests, which was higher in the supine group. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with severe ARDS, early application of prolonged prone-positioning sessions significantly decreased 28-day and 90-day mortality. (Funded by the Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National 2006 and 2010 of the French Ministry of Health; PROSEVA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00527813.) Copyright © 2013 Massachusetts Medical Society.


Aumeran C.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Thibert E.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Chapelle F.A.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Hennequin C.,Laboratoire Of Bacteriologie | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Opinions differ on the value of microbiological testing of endoscopes, which varies according to the technique used. We compared the efficacy on bacterial biofilms of sampling solutions used for the surveillance of the contamination of endoscope channels. To compare efficacy, we used an experimental model of a 48-h Pseudomonas biofilm grown on endoscope internal tubing. Sampling of this experimental biofilm was performed with a Tween 80-lecithin-based solution, saline, and sterile water. We also performed a randomized prospective study during routine clinical practice in our hospital sampling randomly with two different solutions the endoscopes after reprocessing. Biofilm recovery expressed as a logarithmic ratio of bacteria recovered on bacteria initially present in biofilm was significantly more effective with the Tween 80-lecithin-based solution than with saline solution (P = 0.002) and sterile water (P = 0.002). There was no significant difference between saline and sterile water. In the randomized clinical study, the rates of endoscopes that were contaminated with the Tween 80-lecithin-based sampling solution and the saline were 8/25 and 1/25, respectively (P = 0.02), and the mean numbers of bacteria recovered were 281 and 19 CFU/100 ml (P = 0.001), respectively. In conclusion, the efficiency and therefore the value of the monitoring of endoscope reprocessing by microbiological cultures is dependent on the sampling solutions used. A sampling solution with a tensioactive action is more efficient than saline in detecting biofilm contamination of endoscopes. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Venier A.-G.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center | Venier A.-G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lavigne T.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Jarno P.,Rennes University Hospital Center | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2012

Individual and ward risk factors for P. aeruginosa-induced urinary tract infection in the case of nosocomial urinary tract infection in the intensive care unit were determined with hierarchical (multilevel) logistic regression. The 2004-2006 prospective French national intensive care unit nosocomial infection surveillance dataset was used and 3252 patients with urinary tract infection were included; 16% were infected by P. aeruginosa. Individual risk factors were male sex, duration of stay, antibiotics at admission and transfer from another intensive care unit. Ward risk factors were patient turnover and incidence of P. aeruginosa-infected patients. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.


Nicolas-Chanoine M.-H.,Service de Microbiologie | Nicolas-Chanoine M.-H.,University Paris Diderot | Bertrand X.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Bertrand X.,University of Franche Comte | Madec J.-Y.,Unite Antibioresistance et Virulence Bacteriennes
Clinical Microbiology Reviews | Year: 2014

In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended- spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


PubMed | University of Western Brittany, CHRU de Brest and service dhygiene hospitaliere
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Progres en urologie : journal de l'Association francaise d'urologie et de la Societe francaise d'urologie | Year: 2016

Flexible cystoscopes are high temperature sensitive devices that must undergo high-level disinfection according to Spaulding classification. The objective of this study is to provide epidemiological data on the monitoring of microbiological quality of cystoscopes used in a teaching hospital, in order to determine the compliance rate of disinfection and to describe the main identified microorganisms.Prospective study of all the results of microbiological samples taken for 8 years at the Brest teaching hospital. The analysis results were interpreted according to the ministerial recommendations.During the study, 87 microbiological tests were performed. The rate of non-compliant samples was 19.5% (17/87). This rate reached 24.5% (12/49) of the programmed controls. The microorganisms identified were present in small amounts, corresponding mainly to bacteria from the environment.The rate of non-compliance of the microbiological tests performed on cystoscopes is relatively high (19.5%), but the infectious risk seems limited. Hidden microorganisms are present in small quantities and identified germs are not known to be responsible for urinary tract infections. Educating professionals responsible for cystoscopes reprocessing and conducting regular audits may help to ensure a good level of cystoscope disinfection.


Aumeran C.,Service dHygiene Hospitaliere | Poincloux L.,Hepatogastroenterologie | Souweine B.,CLIN | Robin F.,Bacteriologie | And 4 more authors.
Endoscopy | Year: 2010

Background and study aims: Infection is a recognized complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We describe the epidemiologic and molecular investigations of an outbreak of ERCP-related severe nosocomial infection due to Klebsiella pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Patients and methods: We conducted epidemiologic and molecular investigations to identify the source of the outbreak in patients undergoing ERCP. We carried out reviews of the medical and endoscopic charts and microbiological data, practice audits, surveillance cultures of duodenoscopes and environmental sites, and molecular typing of clinical and environmental isolates. Results: Between December 2008 and August 2009, 16 patients were identified post-ERCP with Klebsiella pneumoniae that produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamase type CTX-M-15. There were 8 bloodstream infections, 4 biliary tract infections, and 4 cases of fecal carriage. The microorganism was isolated only from patients who had undergone ERCP. Environmental investigations found no contamination of the washer-disinfectors or the surfaces of the endoscopy rooms. Routine surveillance cultures of endoscopes were repeatedly negative during the outbreak but the epidemic strain was finally isolated from one duodenoscope by flushing and brushing the channels. Molecular typing confirmed the identity of the clinical and environmental strains. Practice audits showed that manual cleaning and drying before storage were insufficient. Strict adherence to reprocessing procedures ended the outbreak. Conclusions: The endoscopes used for ERCP can act as a reservoir for the emerging ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae. Regular audits to ensure rigorous application of cleaning, high-level disinfection, and drying steps are crucial to avoid contamination. © 2010 Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.


Desrousseaux C.,Clermont University | Desrousseaux C.,University Blaise Pascal | Sautou V.,Clermont University | Descamps S.,Clermont University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2013

Background: The development of devices with surfaces that have an effect against microbial adhesion or viability is a promising approach to the prevention of device-related infections. Aim: To review the strategies used to design devices with surfaces able to limit microbial adhesion and/or growth. Methods: A PubMed search of the published literature. Findings: One strategy is to design medical devices with a biocidal agent. Biocides can be incorporated into the materials or coated or covalently bonded, resulting either in release of the biocide or in contact killing without release of the biocide. The use of biocides in medical devices is debated because of the risk of bacterial resistance and potential toxicity. Another strategy is to modify the chemical or physical surface properties of the materials to prevent microbial adhesion, a complex phenomenon that also depends directly on microbial biological structure and the environment. Anti-adhesive chemical surface modifications mostly target the hydrophobicity features of the materials. Topographical modifications are focused on roughness and nanostructures, whose size and spatial organization are controlled. The most effective physical parameters to reduce bacterial adhesion remain to be determined and could depend on shape and other bacterial characteristics. Conclusions: A prevention strategy based on reducing microbial attachment rather than on releasing a biocide is promising. Evidence of the clinical efficacy of these surface-modified devices is lacking. Additional studies are needed to determine which physical features have the greatest potential for reducing adhesion and to assess the usefulness of antimicrobial coatings other than antibiotics. © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society.


The discovery of antibiotics has enabled serious infections to be treated. However, bacteria resistant to several families of antibiotics and the emergence of new highly drug-resistant bacteria constitute a public health issue in France and across the world. Actions to prevent their transmission are being put in place. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

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