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Chavatte-Palmer P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chavatte-Palmer P.,Paris Observatory | Levy R.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | Levy R.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite | Year: 2012

The concept of reproduction without uterus, or ectogenesis, has long been considered a myth. Nowadays, however, the in vitro conception (IVF) and embryo culture before implantation are largely used in humans with more than 50,000 IVF and ICSI procedures yearly in France, but also in ruminants where about 400,000 bovine embryos are produced in vitro worldwide each year. In order to proceed with gestation, a 3D structure enabling implantation is needed. Ex-vivo implantation of human embryos was obtained both in a perfused ex-vivo uterus and in a 3 dimensional culture of endometrial cells, but these experiments were stopped because of ethical concerns. The implantation of a mouse embryo in a similar 3D structure has been reported but did not lead to the production of a live pup. Another interest for an artificial uterus or placenta would be to use it for ex-vivo maturation of very premature fetuses. Extra-corporal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) was developed for many years but its use remains disappointing in preterm infants when compared to the important progress made with more classical clinical care. In any case, goat fetuses have been maintained alive up to 9 days in an artificial amniotic pouch, being oxygenated via ECMO. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Sermondade N.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | Sermondade N.,University of Paris 13 | Sifer C.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS
Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite | Year: 2011

Because it could constitute an additional tool for Assisted Reproductive Technologies decisions, Motile Sperm Organelle Morphology Examination (MSOME) has received an increased attention, especially for its applications for diagnosis and prognosis. On the methodological side, most of teams use a similar definition of a normal spermatozoon observed with MSOME. On the contrary, the classification of the abnormal sperms is less consensual because at least six classifications were published. No satisfying standard is published. Furthermore, the nature of vacuoles observed with MSOME is widely discussed. Initially considered as nuclear, some authors rather suggested an acrosomic origin, or a mixed origin, while the others give arguments for a nuclear origin. Moreover, very few data concerning thresholds are available and the MSOME indications are still controversial. So, the MSOME is a tool of which evaluation is in progress and its clinical interests are not demonstrated at the moment. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Durand M.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | Sifer C.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS
Gynecologie Obstetrique Fertilite | Year: 2013

The occurrence of complete fertilization failure following conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a rare event. Each of six physiological stages of the fertilisation can be failing. The cause of a fertilisation failure is either the spermatozoa, or the oocyte. The aim of this study was to determine if this event is predictable, and to define the later strategy. On all sperm tests available, it seems that only, tests of zona pellucida binding and acrosomique reaction are relatively predictive of a complete fertilization failure after IVF. No test allows at the moment to predict an oocyte contribution to unsuccessful fertilization. The strategy retained after a complete fertilization failure following the first attempt of IVF is to propose an ICSI; either to do an IVF if this event arises in the rank n+1, or when the number of inseminated oocytes was low. Concerning the ICSI, the low number of micro-injected oocyte is often in question; so the strategy retained following a first fertilization failure after ICSI is to perform a new ICSI attempt after optimization of the ovarian stimulation. When the cause is spermatic, it is indicated trying a modified ICSI with the use of pentoxifiline, or an intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI), sometimes with assisted oocyte activation. In last solution, we can propose the ovum donation.

Whitfield M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Pollet-Villard X.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | Pollet-Villard X.,University of Paris 13 | Levy R.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | And 3 more authors.
Asian Journal of Andrology | Year: 2015

Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia) affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

Kashir J.,Womens Center | Sermondade N.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | Sermondade N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Sifer C.,Service dHistologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS | And 7 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2012

Study Question Does motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME) affect levels and localization patterns of the oocyte activation factor phospholipase C zeta (PLCζ) in globozoospermic sperm with and without an acrosomal bud? Summary Answer MSOME identified round-headed globozoospermic sperm with increased levels of PLCζ relative to sperm from the same sample that did not undergo MSOME, and identified novel patterns of PLCζ localization in sperm exhibiting an acrosomal bud. What is Known Already Absence or reduction in the level of PLCζ in the sperm head, abnormal localization patterning, or defective functional ability as a result of PLCζ gene mutation, have been linked to certain types of human male factor infertility in which oocyte activation is deficient. It has been determined that a subpopulation of sperm (1) from a patient exhibiting 100 globozoospermia presented with an acrosome bud upon MSOME. A cycle of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection, carried out with sperm exhibiting an acrosomal bud led to pregnancy and birth of a healthy baby boy, without the use of assisted oocyte activation (AOA). Study Design, Size, Duration Immunofluorescent analysis of PLCζ in globozoospermic sperm from three patients, before and after MSOME. Participants/Materials, Setting , Methods Quantitative immunofluorescence was used to investigate PLCζ levels and localization patterns in individual sperm (n 1 patient) identified by MSOME and isolated by micromanipulation, and presenting with and without the acrosomal bud. A secondary aim was to investigate levels and localization patterns of PLCζ in sperm before and after MSOME from two other globozoospermic men. Main Results and The Role of ChanceNon-globozoospermic control sperm exhibited characteristic localization patterns of PLCζ immunofluorescence. Completely round-headed globozoospermic sperm from patients 1-3 were either devoid of PLCζ immunofluorescence, or exhibited an abnormal, punctate, pattern of PLCζ localization. PLCζ immunofluorescence in sperm exhibiting an acrosomal bud was observed in the midpiece with varying fluorescent intensity and was detected in 28.5 of such sperm. The majority of sperm with an acrosomal bud (43.0) exhibited punctate patterns of PLCζ localization within the sperm head. A further 28.5 of sperm exhibited PLCζ in both the head and the midpiece. Total levels of PLCζ, and the proportions of sperm exhibiting PLCζ immunoreactivity, showed significant variance (P ≤ 0.05) amongst control [45.8 arbitrary units (a.u.) and 95.7, respectively], non-MSOME-selected (25.9 a.u. and 46.1, respectively) and MSOME-selected globozoospermic sperm (33.4 a.u. and 65.0, respectively). Total levels of PLCζ immunofluorescence, and proportions of sperm exhibiting PLCζ immunoreactivity, in control sperm was significantly higher (P≤ 0.05) compared with non-MSOME-selected sperm, but not significantly different from MSOME-selected sperm. Limitations, Reasons for Caution The low numbers of sperm analysed may not be ideal for conclusive statistical analysis. Evaluation of the effects of MSOME on morphologically normal sperm would confirm Conclusions . Wider Implications of The Findings The present findings provide hope for the future treatment of globozoospermia without the need for AOA, and provide further evidence for the clinical application of PLCζ as a therapeutic and prognostic tool. Study Funding/Competing Interest (S)The research described herein was funded by the Nuffield Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Oxford. The authors report no conflict of interest. © 2012 The Author.

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