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Damm F.,Institute Gustave Roussy | Damm F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Damm F.,University Paris - Sud | Nguyen-Khac F.,Service dhematologie biologique | And 8 more authors.
Leukemia | Year: 2012

Spliceosome mutations represent a new generation of acquired genetic alterations that affect both myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. A substantial proportion of patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) harbor such mutations, which are often missense in type. Genotype-phenotype associations have been demonstrated for one of these mutations, SF3B1, with ring sideroblasts in MDS and 11q22 deletions in CLL. Spliceosome mutations might result in defective spliceosome assembly, deregulated global mRNA splicing, nuclear-cytoplasm export and altered expression of multiple genes. Such mutations are infrequent in other lymphomas, which instead display a separate group of novel mutations involving genes whose products are believed to affect histone acetylation and methylation and chromatin structure (for example, EZH2 and MLL2). On the other hand, some mutations (for example, NOTCH1) occur in both CLL and other immature and mature lymphoid malignancies. In the current review, we discuss potential mechanisms of cell transformation associated with spliceosome mutations, touch upon the increasing evidence regarding the clonal involvement of hematopoietic stem cells in some cases of otherwise mature lymphoid disorders and summarize recent information on recently described mutations in lymphomas. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Beris P.,University of Geneva | Beris P.,Laboratoire central Unilabs | Picard V.,Service dhematologie biologique | Picard V.,University Paris - Sud
Seminars in Hematology | Year: 2015

Non-immune hemolytic anemia (NIHA) is characterized by positive routine hemolytic tests but negative anti-human immunoglobulin (Coombs) test. Hereditary non-immune hemolysis includes disorders of erythrocytic enzymes, membrane, hemoglobin (qualitative and quantitative disorders), as well as the rare hereditary forms of thrombotic microangiopathies. Acquired NIHA includes paroxysmal nocturnal hemolysis (PNH), infections, drug and metal intoxications with as a target red blood cells or endothelium of capillaries, the rare acquired forms of thalassemia or erythrocytic membrane disorders, and hemolysis secondary to a dysfunctioning artificial (prosthetic) cardiac valve. Identification of the specific cause of NIHA is sometimes difficult and requires not only a good knowledge of this entity but mainly a qualified specialized hematologic laboratory. An algorithm to be used in every new patient consulting for NIHA is proposed in the last part of this article. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Van Dreden P.,Roche Holding AG | Woodhams B.,Roche Holding AG | Rousseau A.,Roche Holding AG | Favier M.,Service dendocrinologie | Favier R.,Service dhematologie biologique
Thrombosis Research | Year: 2012

Various components of the coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways are involved in normal embryonic implantation, trophoblast invasion, placentation, and recurrent miscarriages are characterized by defective placentation and microthrombi in the placental vasculature. Although recurrent miscarriage is a heterogeneous condition the relationship between abnormalities in the haemostatic pathways and pregnancy outcome is increasingly recognized. The challenge we face is how to discriminate between women who are destined to miscarry from those whose pregnancy will be successful. Considering the crucial role of thrombomodulin and tissue factor in coagulation and in embryonic development, we have performed a study using specific assays for thrombomodulin, tissue factor activity and procoagulant phospholipids in association with other parameters in 30 early (under 12 weeks) and 32 late (over 22 weeks) pregnancy loss women and compared them with 62 normal pregnancy women and 35 non-pregnant women. Plasma levels of tissue factor activity, thrombomodulin activity, and procoagulant phospholipids were significantly higher in patients than in control subjects. In addition the tissue factor activity/free tissue factor pathway inhibitor ratio was higher in patients than in controls. Interestingly, patients with late pregnancy loss had higher tissue factor activity/free tissue factor pathway inhibitor ratios than patients with early pregnancy loss. The combinations of these different parameters reveal an increase in procoagulant activity which could be secondary to endothelial damage or coagulation activation and then are involved in the pathogenesis of pregnancy loss. Their simultaneous measurement of these activities might provide a new tool to assess the prognosis of pregnancy loss. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Brugat T.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Brugat T.,University of Paris Descartes | Nguyen-Khac F.,Service dhematologie biologique | Nguyen-Khac F.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Blood | Year: 2010

In somatic cells, eroded telomeres can induce DNA double-strand break signaling, leading to a form of replicative senescence or apoptosis, both of which are barriers to tumorigenesis. However, cancer cells might display telomere dysfunctions which in conjunction with defects in DNA repair and apoptosis, enables them to circumvent these pathways. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells exhibit telomere dysfunction, and a subset of these cells are resistant to DNA damage-induced apoptosis and display short telomeres. We show here that these cells exhibit significant resection of their protective telomeric 3′ single-stranded overhangs and an increased number of telomere-induced foci containing αH2AX and 53BP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated increased levels of telomeric Ku70 and phospho-S2056-DNA-PKcs, 2 essential components of the mammalian nonhomologous end-joining DNA repair system. Notably, these CLL cells display deletions of telomeric signals on one or 2 chromatids in parallel with 11q22 deletions, or with 13q14 deletions associated with another chromosomal aberration or with a complex karyotype. Taken together, our results indicate that a subset of CLL cells from patients with an unfavorable clinical outcome harbor a novel type of chromosomal aberration resulting from telomere dysfunction. © 2010 by The American Society of Hematology.

Masliah-Planchon J.,UF de Genetique Moleculaire | Darnige L.,Service dhematologie biologique | Bellucci S.,Service dhematologie biologique | Bellucci S.,University Paris Diderot
British Journal of Haematology | Year: 2013

Delta storage pool deficiency (δ-SPD) is a rare heterogeneous group of platelet disorders characterized by a reduction in the number or content of dense granules. δ-SPD causes a mild to moderate bleeding diathesis characterized mainly by mucocutaneous bleeding. Currently, no specific treatment is available and the therapeutic approach is based on prevention of excessive bleeding. However, during the last few years, important insights into the pathophysiology of δ-SPD have been achieved using mouse models and dense granule deficiency-associated congenital diseases, such as Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome and Chediak-Higashi syndrome. It thus appears that δ-SPD represents a genetically heterogeneous group of intracellular vesicle biogenesis and/or trafficking disorders. This review summarizes recent data regarding the molecular mechanisms together with clinical features of the different types of δ-SPD. Although the molecular basis of isolated inherited δ-SPD remains currently unknown, next-generation sequencing strategies should enable researchers to identify the causative genes. Identification of those genes should contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology, represent useful tools for genetic diagnosis, and eventually lead to new specific therapeutic approaches. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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