Service des Maladies Infectieuses Pediatriques

Casablanca, Morocco

Service des Maladies Infectieuses Pediatriques

Casablanca, Morocco
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Diawara I.,Hassan II University | Zerouali K.,Hassan II University | Elmdaghri N.,Hassan II University | Elmdaghri N.,Institute Pasteur du Maroc | Abid A.,Service des Maladies Infectieuses Pediatriques
BMC Pediatrics | Year: 2017

Background: Simple parapneumonic effusion is a pleural effusion associated with lung infection (i.e., pneumonia). Streptococcus pneumoniae remains the most common pathogen causing parapneumonic effusions. In Morocco, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13-valent (PCV13) was introduced in the national immunization program in October 2010 in 2+1 schedule for prevention of pneumococcal disease, and replaced by the PCV10 in July 2012 in the same schedule. We report a case of parapneumonic pleural effusions caused by S. pneumoniae serotype 19A in a child immunized with 3 doses of PCV13. Case presentation: This is a 2.5years old previously healthy Moroccan female, fully vaccinated by PCV13 and immunocompetent, admitted to a private medical clinic with a six months history of persistent asthma. On arrival (7 February 2015), she was febrile to 40.3°C with a brutal flu syndrome, chills, dry cough and serous rhinitis, for which she received symptomatic treatment. A biological assessment was done that confirmed the clinical diagnosis of flu. Seven days after, she presented a progressive deterioration of its general condition and the onset of severe abdominal pain. She was hospitalized and a second biological assessment, computed tomography scans and chest radiography were done that confirmed a diagnosis of a pneumococcal parapneumonia with abscess of the left lower lobe with encysted empyema. Microbiological analysis of the pleural fluid showed a S. pneumoniae serotype 19A with susceptibility intermediate to penicillin. The patient was treated by antibiotics including amoxicillin, cefixime ceftriaxone and vancomycin. Conclusions: We reported a case of parapneumonic pleural effusions caused by a vaccine serotype pneumococcal 19A occurring in an immunocompetent child immunized with 3 doses of PCV13. © 2017 The Author(s).

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