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Barre N.,Institute Agronomique neo Caledonien Center | Happold J.,Office of the Chief Veterinary Officer | Delathiere J.-M.,Service dInspection Veterinaire | Desoutter D.,Service des Laboratoires Officiels Veterinaires | And 6 more authors.
Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases | Year: 2011

In December 2007, Babesia bovis was introduced to New Caledonia through the importation of cattle that had been vaccinated with a live tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine. Although the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is common in New Caledonia, the territory had previously been free of tick-borne diseases of cattle. This paper describes the initial extent of the outbreak, the measures and rationale for disease control, and the progress to date of the eradication campaign. Initially, 22 properties were affected involving approximately 2300 cattle in 'high risk' zones and 1600 in adjoining 'suspect' zones. Rather than slaughtering infected herds or attempting to eliminate the tick vector, the campaign was based on quarantine of affected properties, and aggressive tick control in conjunction with 3-monthly treatments of the high risk cattle with the antiprotozoal drug imidocarb dipropionate. Subsequent surveillance by ELISA and PCR showed a progressive and dramatic decline in seroprevalence among infected herds and the absence of new infections. All 22 properties were considered to be free of Babesia within 12 months of the start of the disease control program. These results indicate that the strategy was effective in eliminating Babesia from infected herds and feasible as an eradication strategy on a moderately large scale. Unfortunately, early in the campaign, babesiosis spread to a herd of feral cattle on a property in the 'suspect' zone, and this reservoir of infection subsequently resulted in the infection (or reinfection) of cattle on several neighbouring commercial farms. The eradication campaign in New Caledonia is currently focussed on destocking the feral cattle - extensive surveillance suggests that this is the only remaining nidus of infection. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. Source

Daval N.,Cabinet Veterinaire du Regain | Marchal C.,Service des Laboratoires Officiels Veterinaires | Guillaumot L.,Institute Pasteur Of Nouvelle Caledonie | Hue T.,Institute Agronomique neo Caledonien | And 3 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2016

Background: Canine leishmaniasis (CanL), a parasitic zoonotic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and usually transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies, has rarely been reported in Pacific islands, which have been regarded until now as leishmaniasis-free territory. Here, we report the first autochthonous CanL case in New Caledonia (south-western Pacific) and the investigations carried out 1) to determine how infection was introduced into and transmitted among these dogs and 2) to assess the risks to animal and public health. Methods: Extensive epidemiological and entomological investigations in and around the focus were carried out. Leishmaniasis infection was confirmed by histopathology, indirect fluorescent antibody test, real-time PCR, and culture. Parasite strain was typed by the isoenzymatic technique. Results: The survey revealed close contacts between the autochthonous dog and two infected bitches imported from Spain, but failed to find any possible vector or disease spreading to other animals or humans. L. infantum zymodeme MON-1, the most frequent type in the Mediterranean basin, was identified. Although transplacental and venereal transmissions could not be excluded, the evidence was in favour of non-vectorial, direct dog-to-dog transmission. Conclusions: This study corroborates the possibility of non-vectorial routes (transplacental, venereal, and direct dog-to-dog) of canine leishmaniasis transmission in New Caledonia and raises the debate of relevant test requirements and diagnostic sensitivity prior to importation of dogs in Leishmania-free regions. New leishmaniasis control measures and recommendations to avoid future CanL introduction on the island are discussed. © 2016 Daval et al. Source

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