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Issa A.Y.,Institute University des science et Techniques dAbeche | Mopate L.Y.,British Petroleum | Ayssiwede S.B.,Service de Zootechnie Alimentation | Missohou A.,Service de Zootechnie Alimentation
International Journal of Poultry Science

The objective of this work was to characterize the production of chickens and technical performance of family poultry farms in the Departments of Hadjer Lamis in the Sahel zone and West Tandjilé in the Sudanian zone. The crosscutting and retrospective survey covered 16 villages and 233 farmers randomly selected. The investigated Livestock was made up of 5208 birds. Poultry farmers are mainly farmers (86.7%), with an average age of 40.7 ± 14.9 years practice poultry farming as a secondary activity. They are mostly men (71.2%), illiterate (51.5%) and especially married (91.8%). The majority of men (70.4%) reported being owners of the poultry yards. Dominant types of henhouses are huts (45.1%) and rudimentary livestock structures (35.5%). Feed distributed to poultry are mainly cereals (77.7%) served on the ground (60.9%), 2 times a day by 96.6% of poultry farmers. Drinking water is served in old utensils (47.2%), broken jars or pottery (39.1%) and wooden containers (13.7%). Medical prophylaxis is non-existent; farmers make use of traditional care in case of bird disease. Newcastle disease and predation are the main causes of mortality in chicken breeding. The size of the poultry yards is 16.8 ± 19.9 chickens for a hens/rooster sex ratio of about 2.0. The age at first egg is 5.6 ± 1.31 months. The number of broods per annum is 3.57 ± 0.92, with 11.56 ± 2.23 eggs/egg-laying. The average hatching rate is about 87% and chick survival to weaning 74%. Production is mainly destined for sale (87.6%). With 22.68 ± 11.32 individuals sold per annum at an average price of 2270 FCFA per chicken, earnings are 51.529 CFA/annum per producer. The average number of chickens consumed is 6.99 ± 7.65 heads per annum. Decisions to sell chickens are made especially by men (60.5%), but only women have ensured the sale at the markets. No significant difference was observed between the two Departments at the socio-economic level and reproductive parameters of the birds, probably due to the similarity of practices implemented. © Asian Network for Scientific Information, 2013. Source

Missohou A.,Service de Zootechnie Alimentation | Mbodj M.,Service de Zootechnie Alimentation | Zanga D.,Service dHygiene et dIndustrie des Denrees Alimentaires dOrigine Animale | Niang S.,Institute Fondamental Dafrique Noire Cheikh Anta Diop Ifan Ch A Diop | And 4 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production

A total of 100 samples of poultry meat were collected in poultry farms in the vicinity of the Mbeubeuss landfill in the Niayes (Senegal) for microbiological and chemical analysis. Fifty-four (54) samples were collected in farms located less than 1 km from the landfill and 46 samples were collected in farms located a bit further (more than 1 km from the landfill). Microbiological quality was determined using techniques recommended by Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR). Lead and cadmium concentration in poultry meat was measured by flame spectrometry while total mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. Three percent (3%) of the samples' quality were unsatisfactory for E. coli, 1% for Staphylococci and 7% for Salmonella spp. Poor meat quality was found either in farms located less than 1 km of the landfill or in farms located at more than 1 km of the landfill. Except for Salmonella, only meat samples from poultry receiving drinking water from well showed unsatisfactory microbiological quality. The samples were free of cadmium and lead but were contaminated by mercury. Sixty-eight percent (68%) of the samples contained mercury with a high contamination level (>0.011 mg/kg) in 20% of the samples. No significant difference was found between the farms that were nearest to and further away from the landfill while the source of drinking water seemed to be the main cause of contamination of poultry meat by mercury. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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