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BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary complications of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection are rare and dominated by nervous system disorders. Two patients suffering from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with M. Pneumoniae infection are reported. AIM: Report of two new cases CASES REPORT: The 2 cases, M. Pneumoniae infection was documented by the positivity of serology, polymerase chain reaction and culture in the respiratory tract. Patient 1 recovered after prolonged mechanical ventilation in the paediatric intensive care unit. He was fully conscious 1 month after admission and able to walk with help 2.5 months after the onset of the disease. The 2nd patient died after 9 days of hospitalisation in the intensive care unit. The death was caused by neurovegetative disorders.

Boudry G.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Jamin A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chatelais L.,Pole medico chirurgical de pEdiatrie et de genetique clinique | Gras-Le Guen C.,Service de reanimation pediatrique | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The interplay between the colonic microbiota and gut epithelial and immune cells during the neonatal period, which establishes the structure of the microbiota and programs mucosal immunity, is affected by the diet. We hypothesized that protein-enriched milk formula would disturb this interplay through greater flux of protein entering the colon, with consequences later in life. Piglets were fed from postnatal day (PND) 2 to 28 either a normal-protein formula (NP; 51 g protein/L) or high-protein formula (HP; 77 g protein/L) and weaned at PND28, when they received standard diets until PND160. HP feeding transiently increased the quantity of protein entering the colon (PND7) but did not change the microbiota composition at PND28, except for a higher production of branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in an in vitro fermentation test (P < 0.05). HP piglets had greater colonic mucosa densities of cluster of differentiation (CD) 3+ and CD172+ cells and lower II-1β and Tnfα mRNA levels at PND28 (P < 0.05). Later in life (PND160), HP females, but not males, had a higher increase in colonic permeability after ex vivo oxidative stress and higher cytokine secretion in response to lipopolysaccharide in colonic explant cultures than NP females (P < 0.05). HP females also had lower colonic amounts of F. prausnitzii and BCFAs (P < 0.05). BCFAs displayed a dose-dependent protection against inflammation-induced alteration of barrier function in Caco-2 cells (P < 0.05). In conclusion, protein-enriched formula had little impact on colonicmicrobiota, but it modified colonic immune cell development and had a long-term effect on adult colonic mucosa sensitivity to inflammatory insults, probably through microbiotal and hormonal factors. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Introduction - The objective of the SERAC study was to describe the long term handicaps in children severely injured and admitted in intensive care after a road accident. Methods - Children severely injured (Injury severity score, ISS>16) admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit in 2003 and 2004 among 12 French pediatric intensive care units (PICU) were included. A clinical and neuropsychological assessment using standardized and validated scales was performed six months and 12 month after the accident. Results - Among the 139 children included, 31 deceased. Median age was 9 years and median ISS was 27. Among the 108 survivors 89 and 88 were assessed at 6 months and 12 months respectively. Somatic complaints the most frequently reported were fatigue (70%), attention disorders (>60%), behavioural disorders (60%). According to the type of handicap assessed, 25 to 40% of children were disabled. Most of them returned to their previous school, but 20% had difficulties. Familial consequences of these disabilities were frequent and long lasting. Conclusion - The frequency of symptoms reported by parents differed from those of impairments and disabilities assessed by tests. These handicaps had a link with the severity of traumatic brain injury and had a significant impact on family.

Leclerc F.,Service de reanimation pediatrique | Vamecq J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research
Archives de Pediatrie | Year: 2015

Lactate production results from anaerobic glycolysis. This pathway is recruited physiologically during intense and sustained muscular contractions. Hyperlactatemia may develop when tissue oxygenation is jeopardized such as in shock, its absence having been, however, sometimes reported in sepsis in which interactions between infectious agents and the organism's cells might blunt or disrupt hyperlactatemia development. During the course of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis, a 9-month-old girl developed severe dehydration (capillary-refill time, 5s) leading to hypovolemic shock without signs of sepsis and with hypotension at 62/21. mmHg Surprisingly, the child failed to develop hyperlactatemia during shock. An etiologic search to understand why hyperlactatemia did not occur revealed that this patient had been receiving propranolol since the age of four months for the treatment of a Cyrano hemangioma. Via its inhibitory action on β-adrenergic receptors, propranolol antagonizes the stimulation of glycolysis by catecholamines, which may be rationally proposed to have contributed to preventing hyperlactatemia during hypovolemic shock in this patient. Mechanisms by which propranolol can mediate this antihyperlactatemia action are further illustrated and discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Riffard G.,Service de Reeducation Fonctionnelle | Trapes L.,Service de reanimation pediatrique
Motricite Cerebrale | Year: 2015

Acute respiratory failure in severe disabled people is a frequent and serious complication with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Common management relies on antibiotic therapy combined with clearance of airway secretions. Several manual and instrumental airway clearance techniques can be used to improve patients and tend to avoid mechanical ventilation, which is a controversial ethical issue. Postural changes should be associated with these techniques to decrease muscular contraction and enhance alveolar recruitment. This article is an overview of the most useful airway clearance techniques in disabled patients. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

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