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Graftieaux J.-P.,Reims University Hospital Center | Bollaert P.-E.,Nancy University Hospital Center | Haddad L.,Consultation douleur | Kentish-Barnes N.,Service de Reanimation medicale | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Intensive Care | Year: 2012

French law allows organ donation after death due to cardiocirculatory arrest. In the Maastricht classification, type III non-heart-beating donors are those who experience cardiocirculatory arrest after the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. French authorities in charge of regulating organ donation (Agence de la Biomédecine, ABM) are considering organ collection from Maastricht type III donors. We describe a scenario for Maastricht type III organ donation that fully complies with the ethical norms governing care to dying patients. That organ donation may occur after death should have no impact on the care given to the patient and family. The dead-donor rule must be followed scrupulously: the organ retrieval procedure must neither cause nor hasten death. The decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatments, withdrawal modalities, and care provided to the patient and family must adhere strictly to the requirements set forth in patient-rights legislation (the 2005 Léonetti law in France) and should not be influenced in any way by the possibility of organ donation. A major ethical issue regarding the family is how best to transition from discussing treatmentwithdrawal decisions to discussing possible organ retrieval for donation should the patient die rapidly after treatment withdrawal. Close cooperation between the healthcare team and the organ retrieval team is crucial to minimize the distress of family members during this transition. Modalities for implementing Maastricht type III organ donation are discussed here, including the best location for withdrawing life-sustaining treatments (operating room or intensive care unit). © 2012 Graftieaux et al. Source

Heming N.,University of Paris Descartes | Urien S.,University of Paris Descartes | Fulda V.,University of Paris Descartes | Meziani F.,Service de Reanimation medicale | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients may develop metabolic alkalosis during weaning from mechanical ventilation. Acetazolamide is one of the treatments used to reverse metabolic alkalosis. Methods: 619 time-respiratory (minute ventilation, tidal volume and respiratory rate) and 207 time-PaCO2 observations were obtained from 68 invasively ventilated COPD patients. We modeled respiratory responses to acetazolamide in mechanically ventilated COPD patients and then simulated the effect of increased amounts of the drug. Results: The effect of acetazolamide on minute ventilation and PaCO2 levels was analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effect model. The effect of different ventilatory modes was assessed on the model. Only slightly increased minute ventilation without decreased PaCO2 levels were observed in response to 250 to 500 mg of acetazolamide administered twice daily. Simulations indicated that higher acetazolamide dosage (>1000 mg daily) was required to significantly increase minute ventilation (P<.001 vs pre-acetazolamide administration). Based on our model, 1000 mg per day of acetazolamide would increase minute ventilation by >0.75 L min-1 in 60% of the population. The model also predicts that 45% of patients would have a decrease of PaCO2>5 mmHg with doses of 1000 mg per day. Conclusions: Simulations suggest that COPD patients might benefit from the respiratory stimulant effect after the administration of higher doses of acetazolamide. © 2014 Heming et al. Source

van der Linden T.,Groupe Hospitalier Institute Catholique Of Lille Faculte Libre Of Medecine | Souweine B.,Service de reanimation polyvalente | Dupic L.,Service de Reanimation Medico Chirurgicale | Soufir L.,Service de Reanimation Chirurgicale | Meyer P.,Service de reanimation polyvalente
Annals of Intensive Care | Year: 2012

Thrombocytopenia is a very frequent disorder in the intensive care unit. Many etiologies should be searched, and therapeutic approaches differ according to these different causes. However, no guideline exists regarding optimum practices for these situations in critically ill patients. We present recommendations for the management of thrombocytopenia in intensive care unit, excluding pregnancy, developed by an expert group of the French-Language Society of Intensive Care (Société de Réanimation de Langue Française (SRLF), the French Language Group of Paediatric Intensive Care and Emergencies (GFRUP) and of the Haemostasis and Thrombosis Study Group (GEHT) of the French Society of Haematology (SFH). The recommendations cover six fields of application: definition, epidemiology, and prognosis; diagnostic approach; therapeutic aspects; thrombocytopenia and sepsis; iatrogenic thrombocytopenia, with a special focus on heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; and thrombotic microangiopathy. © 2012 Van der Linden et al.; licensee Springer. Source

Louis G.,Service de reanimation polyvalente | Megarbane B.,Service de Reanimation medicale | Lavoue S.,Rennes University Hospital Center | Lassalle V.,Service de Reanimation Medico Chirurgicale | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2012

OBJECTIVE: Very few data are available for critically ill patients with central or extrapontine myelinolysis and according to available evidence, the prognosis seems to be poor. We aimed to describe the baseline characteristics, the management, the long-term prognosis, and the prognostic factors in central or extrapontine myelinolysis. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study considering modified Rankin Scale score >3 or death as an unfavorable outcome. SETTING: Forty-six French intensive care units. PATIENTS: Thirty-six patients with central or extrapontine myelinolysis treated in 2000-2010. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: At baseline, 31 (86%) patients were alcoholics and 33 (92%) presented with hyponatremia. Mechanical ventilation was required in 32 (89%) patients. At 1-yr follow-up, 11 (31%) patients have died, whereas 14 (56%) survivors have returned to a Rankin score ≤1. Life-supporting therapies were withheld in 11 (31%) patients. Severe cerebral motor disability was the most frequently cited reason. However, five of them were still alive at 1 yr with Rankin score ≤1 for four of them. We found no statistical difference between the 18 (50%) patients with a favorable outcome and the 18 (50%) patients with an unfavorable outcome with regard to severity of illness, suggesting that recovery is possible and unpredictable on the basis of clinical presentation. Chronic alcoholism was less frequent in patients with a favorable outcome as compared with patient with an unfavorable outcome (13 [72%] vs. 18 [100%], p = .04). CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of critically ill patients with central or extrapontine myelinolysis is better than thus far thought despite initial severe clinical manifestations. Regarding the high rate of decisions to withhold life-supporting therapies, the probability of a favorable outcome might be underestimated by intensivists. Copyright © 2012 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Roux A.,Service de pneumologie | Gonzalez F.,Service de Reanimation Medico Chirurgicale | Roux M.,Service de radiologie | Mehrad M.,Service des Urgences | And 9 more authors.
Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses | Year: 2014

Pneumocystis jirovecii is the only fungus of its kind to be pathogenic in humans. It is primarily responsible for pneumonia (PJP). The key to understanding immune defences has focused on T-cells, mainly because of the HIV infection epidemic. Patients presenting with PJP all have a CD4 count below 200/mm3. The introduction of systematic primary prophylaxis and the use of new anti-retroviral drugs have significantly reduced the incidence of this disease in the HIV-infected population, mainly in developed countries. The increasingly frequent use of corticosteroids, chemotherapy, and other immunosuppressive drugs has led to an outbreak of PJP in patients not infected by HIV. These patients presenting with PJP have more rapid and severe symptoms, sometimes atypical, leading to delay the initiation of a specific anti-infective therapy, sometimes a cause of death. However, the contribution of new diagnostic tools and a better understanding of patients at risk should improve their survival. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

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