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Menzel Bourguiba, Tunisia

Lichtenstein D.,Service de Reanimation medicale
Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine | Year: 2012

The FALLS-protocol is included in a limited investigation to diagnose the cause of shock. After simple echocardiography has ruled out obstructive shock (tamponade, pulmonary embolism), the lung is investigated. Absence of disseminated lung rockets rules out cardiogenic shock. At this point, hypovolemic and septic shock are differential diagnoses (rarities apart), and the FALLS-protocol provides fluid therapy with constant monitoring of lung artifacts. Hypovolemic shock will eventually improve - septic shock will not, and the slight excess fluid creates an early, silent stage of interstitial edema, demonstrated by B-lines, demanding interruption of fluid therapy. This sequential approach, combined with the usual, clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic parameters, must be evaluated in multicenter studies. © 2012 Expert Reviews Ltd.

Savalle M.,Service de Reanimation medicale
American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism | Year: 2012

Critical illness affects body composition profoundly, especially body cell mass (BCM). BCM loss reflects lean tissue wasting and could be a nutritional marker in critically ill patients. However, BCM assessment with usual isotopic or tracer methods is impractical in intensive care units (ICUs). We aimed to modelize the BCM of critically ill patients using variables available at bedside. Fat-free mass (FFM), bone mineral (Mo), and extracellular water (ECW) of 49 critically ill patients were measured prospectively by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and multifrequency bioimpedance. BCM was estimated according to the four-compartment cellular level: BCM = FFM - (ECW/0.98) - (0.73 × Mo). Variables that might influence the BCM were assessed, and multivariable analysis using fractional polynomials was conducted to determine the relations between BCM and these data. Bootstrap resampling was then used to estimate the most stable model predicting BCM. BCM was 22.7 ± 5.4 kg. The most frequent model included height (cm), leg circumference (cm), weight shift (Δ) between ICU admission and body composition assessment (kg), and trunk length (cm) as a linear function: BCM (kg) = 0.266 × height + 0.287 × leg circumference + 0.305 × Δweight - 0.406 × trunk length - 13.52. The fraction of variance explained by this model (adjusted r(2)) was 46%. Including bioelectrical impedance analysis variables in the model did not improve BCM prediction. In summary, our results suggest that BCM can be estimated at bedside, with an error lower than ±20% in 90% subjects, on the basis of static (height, trunk length), less stable (leg circumference), and dynamic biometric variables (Δweight) for critically ill patients.

Blot S.,Ghent University | Charles P.-E.,Service de Reanimation medicale
Minerva Anestesiologica | Year: 2013

Despite the availability of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, fungal sepsis remains an issue in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. In terms of occurrence rates, the most important fungal infections are invasive candidiasis and invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Early diagnosis is essential to optimize the chances of survival. As clinical rules based on risk factor assessment lack specificity, early initiation of antifungal therapy depends on fast and reliable diagnostics. Blood cultures or histopathologic evidence is the gold standard but blood cultures lack sensitivity and biopsy sampling may include substantial risk in critically ill patients. Non-culture-based diagnosis tools have therefore arisen as a smart way to detect earlier and/or more accurately the patients with on going fungal infection. For diagnosing invasive candidiasis, three assays (beta-D-glucan and mannan antigen detection, and polymerase chain reaction) yield promising predictive values, albeit that specificity remains an issue. In the absence of biopsies, invasive pulmonary aspergillosis can be diagnosed in nonneutropenic ICU patients by galactomannan antigen detection in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Aspergillus colonization of the respiratory tract can be discriminated from invasive disease by means of a clinical algorithm with high sensitivity but only moderate specificity. The incidence of invasive candidiasis has been stable over the past decades, but an alarming trend towards more non-albicans Candida species and reduced susceptibility is observed. Given the problematic diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis no reliable trend data are available. Outcome following fungal sepsis remains cumbersome. Given the availability of potent antifungal agents any progress in survival is likely to come from a more timely diagnosis.

Soumagne N.,Service de Reanimation medicale
The American journal of emergency medicine | Year: 2011

Taxine, a yew tree toxin, is highly cardiotoxic. We report the case of a patient who developed severe cardiac failure and ventricular fibrillation after consuming yew leaves and who made a full recovery after extracorporeal life support. Yew poisoning can be added to the list of potential indications of extracorporeal life support for refractory toxic cardiogenic shock.

Afessa B.,Rochester College | Azoulay E.,Service de Reanimation medicale
Critical Care Clinics | Year: 2010

An estimated 50,000 to 60,000 patients undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) worldwide annually, of which 15.7% are admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). The most common reason for ICU admission is respiratory failure and almost all develop single or multiorgan failure. Most HSCT recipients admitted to ICU receive invasive mechanical ventilation (MV). The overall short-term mortality rate of HSCT recipients admitted to ICU is 65%, and 86.4% for those receiving MV. Patient outcome has improved over time. Poor prognostic indicators include advanced age, poor functional status, active disease at transplant, allogeneic transplant, the severity of acute illness, and the development of multiorgan failure. ICU resource limitations often lead to triage decisions for admission. For HSCT recipients, the authors recommend (1) ICU admission for full support during their pre-engraftment period and when there is no evidence of disease recurrence; (2) no ICU admission for patients who refuse it and those who are bedridden with disease recurrence and without treatment options except palliation; (3) a trial ICU admission for patients with unknown status of disease recurrence with available treatment options. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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