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Clermont-Ferrand, France

Thiolliere F.,Service de Reanimation medicale | Serre-Sapin A.F.,Laboratoire dHematologie | Reignier J.,Roche Holding AG | Benedit M.,Service de Reanimation Hopital de Moulins Yzeure | And 5 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Purpose: To assess the epidemiology of intensive care unit (ICU) patients with thrombocytopenia (TP). Methods: All consecutive ICU-admitted patients with TP either on admission or acquired during ICU stay were included. TP was defined as either absolute (platelet count <100 × 109/L) or relative (decrease in the platelet count >30 %). Extensive diagnostic workup of TP including bone marrow aspiration was performed. Results: Absolute TP was diagnosed in 208 patients and relative TP in 93. In six patients (2 %), no cause of TP was identified. The median number of TP etiologies per patient was two, with sepsis being the leading cause. Bone marrow aspirates were analyzed in 238 patients. They showed a normal megakaryocyte number in 221 (93 %) and provided novel information for diagnosis in 52 (22 %). Results were susceptible to having an impact on patient management in 22 cases (11 %). The frequency of bone marrow aspiration with results susceptible to having an impact on management did not differ between patients with and without disseminated intravascular coagulation (P = 0.22) and with and without sepsis/septic shock (P = 0.7) but was significantly lower in patients with relative TP than in those with absolute TP (P < 0.01). A serious bleeding event was observed in 30 patients (14.9 %) and a nadir platelet count below 50 × 109/L was an independent risk factor (P < 0.05). Conclusions: In thrombocytopenic patients, sepsis is the leading cause of TP. Bone marrow aspirates may yield significant information on TP mechanisms and contribute to the subsequent management of patients, especially those with absolute TP. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM. Source

Papazian L.,Reanimation des Detresses Respiratoires et Infections Severes | Papazian L.,Aix - Marseille University | Corley A.,University of Queensland | Hess D.,Harvard University | And 14 more authors.
Intensive Care Medicine | Year: 2016

Oxygen therapy can be delivered using low-flow, intermediate-flow (air entrainment mask), or high-flow devices. Low/intermediate-flow oxygen devices have several drawbacks that cause critically ill patients discomfort and translate into suboptimal clinical results. These include limitation of the FiO2 (due to the high inspiratory flow often observed in patients with respiratory failure), and insufficient humidification and warming of the inspired gas. High-flow nasal cannula oxygenation (HFNCO) delivers oxygen flow rates of up to 60 L/min and over the last decade its effect on clinical outcomes has widely been evaluated, such as in the improvement of respiratory distress, the need for intubation, and mortality. Mechanisms of action of HFNCO are complex and not limited to the increased oxygen flow rate. The main aim of this review is to guide clinicians towards evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. It summarizes current knowledge about HFNCO use in ICU patients and the potential areas of uncertainties. For instance, it has been recently suggested that HFNCO could improve the outcome of patients with hypoxemic acute respiratory failure. In other settings, research is ongoing and additional evidence is needed. For instance, if intubation is required, studies suggest that HFNCO may help to improve preoxygenation and can be used after extubation. Likewise, HFNCO might be used in obese patients, or to prevent respiratory deterioration in hypoxemic patients requiring bronchoscopy, or for the delivery of aerosol therapy. However, areas for which conclusive data exist are limited and interventions using standardized HFNCO protocols, comparators, and relevant clinical outcomes are warranted. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg and ESICM Source

Constantin J.-M.,Service de reanimation adulte | Chanques G.,Hopital Saint Eloi | De Jonghe B.,Center Hospitalier Of Poissy Saint Germain | Sanchez P.,Service danesthesie reanimation polyvalente | And 8 more authors.
Annales Francaises d'Anesthesie et de Reanimation | Year: 2010

Objectives: To assess the current use of sedation and analgesia in a large sample of French intensive care units (ICUs) and to define structural characteristics of the units that use a written procedure. Study design: Self-reported survey. Participants: Three hundred and sixty French ICUs were presented the questionnaire in September 2007. Results: Surveys were received from 228 (60.6%) ICUs. Midazolam was used in more than 50% of the patients in 79.2% of the ICUs and propofol in 22.2% of the ICUs. Sufentanil was the most frequently used morphinic. A sedation-scale was used in 68.8% of the units (80.3% Ramsay score). Sedation was assessed at least every 4. hours in 61% of ICUs. A pain-scale was used in 88.9% of the ICUs, but only 12.5% in the non-communicant patients. A written procedure was used in 29.4% of the units only. In multivariate analysis, use in the ICU of a written procedure for the early management of patients with septic shock and/or intensive insulin therapy was the single variable significantly associated with presence of a written procedure for sedation and analgesia (respectively OR 4.37; p<0.0001 and OR 5.64; p=0.032). Conclusion: Although more than two-third of the responding ICUs reported the use of sedation-and-pain-scales, frequency of assessment was low, and objective assessment of pain in the non-communicating patients was extremely uncommon. Similarly, the use of written procedure was low. The use of sedation-analgesia written procedure in an ICU seems strongly influenced by a more global involvement of the ICU in the protocolisation of complex care. These findings support the reinforcement of educational programs. © 2010. Source

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