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Breton D.,Ecole Centrale Paris | Lacombe L.,Laboratoire Danalyses Of Surveillance Et Dexpertise Of La Marine | Michel X.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Rosset M.,Etat Major de la Marine
Archives des Maladies Professionnelles et de l'Environnement | Year: 2016

Purpose of the study: Since the promulgation of the law on transparency and safety in nuclear matter in June 2006, French nuclear activities are subject to numerous legal constraints. The French Navy, which has to undergo the same requirements of transparency as its public or private counterparts, has implemented a comprehensive system of monitoring. Method: This paper describes the sensors and measuring instruments that are used on the military premises of the naval base of Cherbourg, and intends to give detailed results of the environmental survey of the year 2013. Results: The annual dose due to the nuclear activities of the French Navy in the Cherbourg region is extremely low, if compared to the dose due to medical activities or the natural cosmic or ground radiation. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Berard P.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Michel X.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Menetrier F.,CEA Fontenay-aux-roses | Laroche P.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees
Health Physics | Year: 2010

The authors propose a process to improve the medical management of a cutaneous contamination in two ways: firstly by analysis of practices and products of decontamination used; secondly, by developing computer tools for the occupational physicians. This software will allow them to have a rapid dosimetric assessment in the event of a skin contamination by radioactive particles and will help them in their diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. A standardized data sheet was created allowing the exhaustive collection of adequate information in order to evaluate the skin dose. The selection of appropriate monitoring equipment with a 1 cm2 detector, depending on the place and on the surface of the contaminated area, will allow the evaluation and the quantification of the surface activities. A tool has been made as a software package, named Cutadose®, allowing the assessment of the skin dose in situ as well as the efficacy of the prescribed therapy. Copyright © 2010 Health Physics Society.

Breton D.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Cazoulat A.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Bohand S.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Laroche P.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Mullot J.-U.,British Petroleum
Environnement, Risques et Sante | Year: 2012

Since 2001 and the end of the Taliban regime, Afghanistan has become the site of vast military operations aimed at ensuring the country's stability. International armed forces including 130,000 soldiers are deployed there, in a particularly hostile environment. An estimation/prioritization of health risks related to the environment was conducted to improve knowledge of the field of operations, anticipate potential health impacts, and advise the command chain about these risks. We first identi fied chemical and biological hazards. The study of exposure showed that inhalation is the principal route of contamination. Other routes are either minor (skin contact) or under control (ingestion). A semi-quantitative risk assessment was performed according to US military guidelines that fully describe the methodology to be used for such assessments for deployed military personnel, when a directly transposable civilian framework is not available. For each hazard, severity and probability were calculated separately. These were then combined to estimate the operational risk of the field exposure (low to extremely high). Results showed that the highest risk is associated with particles. The risks of other relevant hazards (biological and chemical) appear low or moderate. A complementary study should be conducted to enhance qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the particles present in Afghanistan.

Pina Jomir G.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Pina Jomir G.,University of Lyon | Michel X.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Lecompte Y.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | And 2 more authors.
Radioprotection | Year: 2015

Radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase following caring for a radiologically contaminated patient in a hospital decontamination facility must be anticipated at a local level to be truly efficient, as the volume of waste could be substantial. This management must comply with the principles set out for radioactive as well as medical waste. The first step involves identification of radiologically contaminated waste based on radioactivity measurement for volume reduction. Then, the management depends on the longest radioactive half-life of contaminative radionuclides. For a half-life inferior to 100 days, wastes are stored for their radioactivity to decay for at least 10 periods before disposal like conventional medical waste. Long-lived radioactive waste management implies treatment of liquid waste and special handling for sorting and packaging before final elimination at the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Following this, highly specialized waste management skills, financial responsibility issues and detention of non-medical radioactive sources are questions raised by hospital radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase. © 2015 EDP Sciences.

Lecompte Y.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Bohand S.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Laroche P.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees | Cazoulat A.,Service de Protection Radiologique des Armees
Annales de Biologie Clinique | Year: 2013

After a reviewof radiometric reference methods used in radiotoxicology, analytical performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the workplace urinary diagnosis of internal contamination by radionuclides are evaluated. A literature review (covering the period from 2000 to 2012) is performed to identify the different applications of ICP-MS in radiotoxicology for urine analysis. The limits of detection are compared to the recommendations of the International commission on radiological protection (ICRP 78: "Individual monitoring for internal exposure of workers"). Except one publication describing the determination of strontium-90 (β emitter), all methods using ICP-MS reported in the literature concern actinides (α emiters). For radionuclides with a radioactive period higher than 104 years, limits of detection are most often in compliance with ICRP publication 78 and frequently lower than radiometric methods. ICP-MS allows the specific determination of plutonium-239 + 240 isotopes which cannot be discriminated by α spectrometry. High resolution ICP-MS can also measure uranium isotopic ratios in urine for total uranium concentrations lower than 20 ng/L. The interest of ICP-MS in radiotoxicology concerns essentially the urinary measurement of long radioactive period actinides, particularly for uranium isotope ratio determination and 239 and 240 plutonium isotopes discrimination. Radiometric methods remain the most efficient for the majority of other radionuclides.

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