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Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France

Philippe C.,University of Lorraine | Amsallem D.,Service de neuropediatrie | Francannet C.,Service de genetique medicale | Lambert L.,Nancy University Hospital Center | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010

Background: The FOXG1 gene has been recently implicated in the congenital form of Rett syndrome (RTT). It encodes the fork-head box protein G1, a winged-helix transcriptional repressor with expression restricted to testis and brain, where it is critical for forebrain development. So far, only two point mutations in FOXG1 have been reported in females affected by the congenital form of RTT. Aim: To assess the involvement of FOXG1 in the molecular aetiology of classical RTT and related disorders. Methods: The entire multi-exon coding sequence of FOXG1 was screened for point mutations and large rearrangements in a cohort of 35 MECP2/CDKL5 mutation-negative female patients including 31 classical and four congenital forms of RTT. Results: Two different de novo heterozygous FOXG1-truncating mutations were identified. The subject with the p.Trp308X mutation presented with a severe RTT-like neurodevelopmental disorder, whereas the p.Tyr400X allele was associated with a classical clinical RTT presentation. Conclusions: These new cases give additional support to the genetic heterogeneity in RTT and help to delineate the clinical spectrum of the FOXG1-related phenotypes. FOXG1 screening should be considered in the molecular diagnosis of RTT. Source

Cuvellier J.-C.,Service de neuropediatrie | Lepine A.,Center Saint Paul
Revue Neurologique | Year: 2010

This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis is entertained after exhaustive evaluations have proved unrevealing. The recommended diagnostic approach uses a strategy of targeted testing, which may include gastrointestinal and metabolic evaluations. Therapeutic recommendations include reassurance, both of the child and parents, lifestyle changes, prophylactic therapy (e.g., cyproheptadine in children 5 years or younger and amitriptyline for those older than 5 years), and acute therapy (e.g., triptans, as abortive therapy, and 10% glucose and ondansetron for those requiring intravenous hydration). © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Mourand I.,Thouvenot Service de Neuroradiologie | De Champfleur N.M.,Thouvenot Service de Neuroradiologie | Carra-Dalliere C.,Thouvenot Service de Neuroradiologie | Le Bars E.,Thouvenot Service de Neuroradiologie | And 3 more authors.
Neuroradiology | Year: 2012

Introduction: Hemiplegic migraine is a rare type of migraine that has an aura characterized by the presence of motor weakness, which may occasionally last up to several days, and then resolve without sequela. Pathogenesis of migraine remains unclear and, recently, perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) has provided a non-invasive method to study hemodynamic changes during acute attacks. Methods: Two female patients were admitted in our hospital suffering from prolonged hemiparesis. In both cases, they underwent MRI examination using a 1.5 T magnet including axial diffusion-weighted and perfusion sequences. From each perfusion MRI acquisition two regions of interest were delineated on each hemisphere and, the index of flow, cerebral blood volume, mean transit time, and time to peak were recorded and asymmetry indices from each perfusion parameter were calculated. Results: Perfusion alterations were detected during the attacks. In one case, we observed, after 3 h of left hemiparesia, hypoperfusion of the right hemisphere. In the other case, who presented a familial hemiplegic migraine attack, on the third day of a persistent aura consisting of right hemiplegia and aphasia, PWI revealed hyperperfusion of the left hemisphere. Asymmetry indices for temporal parameters (mean transit time and time to peak) were the most sensitive. These findings resolved spontaneously after the attacks without any permanent sequel or signs of cerebral ischemia on follow-up MRI. Conclusions: PWI should be indicated for patients with migraine attacks accompanied by auras to assess the sequential changes in cerebral perfusion and to better understand its pathogenesis. © Springer-Verlag 2011. Source

Milh M.,Service de neuropediatrie | Scavarda D.,Service de Neurochirurgie Pediatrique | Carron R.,Service de Neurochirurgie fonctionnelle et Stereotaxie | Trebuchon A.,Service de Neurophysiologie clinique | And 2 more authors.
Epilepsy Research | Year: 2014

The pathophysiological mechanisms of epileptic spasms are still poorly understood. The role of subcortical structures has been suggested on the basis of non-localized EEG features and from experimental data. The description of asymmetric spasms associated with lateralized EEG patterns has challenged this view and raises the possibility of a cortical origin. This study investigated the cortical organization of partial seizures associated with epileptic spasms in children undergoing intracerebral EEG recordings for presurgical evaluation. Eleven children with drug resistant epileptic spasms and for whom depth electrode recordings were performed were retrospectively studied. In all children several features suggested a focal origin. Cortical involvement was studied using the "Epileptogenicity Index" (EI). A focal origin was finally demonstrated in 10/11 patients. Seven patients demonstrated pre-ictal changes in the seizure onset zone area. EI analysis showed maximal values in the temporal (n = 5), parietal (n = 1) or frontal (n = 5) cortices. EEG changes were also observed in the premotor cortex during spasms in patients with frontal or parietal seizures and in 3/5 patients with temporal lobe seizures. Good surgical outcome (class I or II) was obtained in 7/10 patients.Seizures associated with epileptic spasms may originate from various cortical regions. Premotor/motor cortices are probably involved in determining ictal clinical changes. © 2014 Published by Elsevier B.V. Source

Fuentes J.,Fundacion Dr Carlos Elosegui de Policlinica Guipuzcoa | Danckaerts M.,Catholic University of Leuven | Cardo E.,University of the Balearic Islands | Puvanendran K.,Child Development Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology | Year: 2013

Psychopharmacological agents were shown to be important for improving the quality of life (QoL) of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A short-term, 10-week study found atomoxetine (ATX) to be effective in improving QoL of ADHD patients. We compared, for the first time, long-term treatment outcomes of ATX and other early standard therapy (OEST, any pharmacological ADHD treatment except ATX) in QoL and functional impairment in pharmacologically naive children/adolescents in a randomized, controlled, open-label study at 6 and 12 months. Patients received ATX (0.5-1.8 mg/kg per day) or OEST (mainly methylphenidate). Quality of life and functioning were assessed by the Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, Parent Rating Form and the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report. Three hundred ninety-eight patients (79.4% male; mean age, 9.3 years) received study treatment. The Child Health and Illness Profile-Child Edition, Parent Rating Form achievement domain t scores significantly improved from baseline to 6 months from means of 28.0 to 37.1 for ATX and from 28.3 to 40.7 for OEST. Mean t scores at 12 months were 40.0 for ATX and 41.0 for OEST. The Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report total score improved from baseline to 6 months in both groups (ATX: mean 1.02 to 0.63; OEST: 0.96 to 0.59). Both treatments were safe with no statistically significant difference in the overall rate of adverse events. Overall, the improvements in QoL and functional impairment observed over time for ATX and OEST were meaningful and stable over the study period of 12 months. Between-group differences were small but sometimes statistically significant, providing the first-time long-term comparative symptomatic and QoL analysis between ATX and OEST. © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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