Renvoise B.,University Paris Diderot |
Renvoise B.,U.S. National Institutes of Health |
Querol G.,University Paris Diderot |
Verrier E.R.,University Paris Diderot |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Cell Science | Year: 2012
The spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) gene product SMN forms with gem-associated protein 2-8 (Gemin2-8) and unrip (also known as STRAP) the ubiquitous survival motor neuron (SMN) complex, which is required for the assembly of spliceosomal small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), their nuclear import and their localization to subnuclear domain Cajal bodies (CBs). The concentration of the SMN complex and snRNPs in CBs is reduced upon SMN deficiency in SMA cells. Subcellular localization of the SMN complex is regulated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and the precise mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using co-immunoprecipitation in HeLa cell extracts and in vitro protein binding assays, we show here that the SMN complex and its component Gemin8 interact directly with protein phosphatase PP1γ. Overexpression of Gemin8 in cells increases the number of CBs and results in targeting of PP1γ to CBs. Moreover, depletion of PP1γ by RNA interference enhances the localization of the SMN complex and snRNPs to CBs. Consequently, the interaction between SMN and Gemin8 increases in cytoplasmic and nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells. Twodimensional protein gel electrophoresis revealed that SMN is hyperphosphorylated in nuclear extracts of PP1γ-depleted cells and expression of PP1c restores these isoforms. Notably, SMN deficiency in SMA leads to the aberrant subcellular localization of Gemin8 and PP1γ in the atrophic skeletal muscles, suggesting that the function of PP1γ is likely to be affected in disease. Our findings reveal a role of PP1γ in the formation of the SMN complex and the maintenance of CB integrity. Finally, we propose Gemin8 interaction with PP1γ as a target for therapeutic intervention in SMA. © 2012. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Pingault V.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Pingault V.,University Paris Est Creteil |
Pingault V.,Laboratoire Of Biochimie Et Genetique |
Bodereau V.,Laboratoire Of Biochimie Et Genetique |
And 25 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013
Transcription factor SOX10 plays a role in the maintenance of progenitor cell multipotency, lineage specification, and cell differentiation and is a major actor in the development of the neural crest. It has been implicated in Waardenburg syndrome (WS), a rare disorder characterized by the association between pigmentation abnormalities and deafness, but SOX10 mutations cause a variable phenotype that spreads over the initial limits of the syndrome definition. On the basis of recent findings of olfactory-bulb agenesis in WS individuals, we suspected SOX10 was also involved in Kallmann syndrome (KS). KS is defined by the association between anosmia and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to incomplete migration of neuroendocrine gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) cells along the olfactory, vomeronasal, and terminal nerves. Mutations in any of the nine genes identified to date account for only 30% of the KS cases. KS can be either isolated or associated with a variety of other symptoms, including deafness. This study reports SOX10 loss-of-function mutations in approximately one-third of KS individuals with deafness, indicating a substantial involvement in this clinical condition. Study of SOX10-null mutant mice revealed a developmental role of SOX10 in a subpopulation of glial cells called olfactory ensheathing cells. These mice indeed showed an almost complete absence of these cells along the olfactory nerve pathway, as well as defasciculation and misrouting of the nerve fibers, impaired migration of GnRH cells, and disorganization of the olfactory nerve layer of the olfactory bulbs. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.
Gobin Limballe S.,Service de Genetique Medicale |
McAndrew R.P.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
Djouadi F.,University of Paris Descartes |
Kim J.J.,Medical College of Wisconsin |
Bastin J.,University of Paris Descartes
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2010
Very-Long-Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCADD) is an autosomal recessive disorder considered as one of the more common ß-oxidation defects, possibly associated with neonatal cardiomyopathy, infantile hepatic coma, or adult-onset myopathy. Numerous gene missense mutations have been described in these VLCADD phenotypes, but only few of them have been structurally and functionally analyzed, and the molecular basis of disease variability is still poorly understood. To address this question, we first analyzed fourteen disease-causing amino acid changes using the recently described crystal structure of VLCAD. The predicted effects varied from the replacement of amino acid residues lining the substrate binding cavity, involved in holoenzyme-FAD interactions or in enzyme dimerisation, predicted to have severe functional consequences, up to amino acid substitutions outside key enzyme domains or lying on near enzyme surface, with predicted milder consequences. These data were combined with functional analysis of residual fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and VLCAD protein levels in patient cells harboring these mutations, before and after pharmacological stimulation by bezafibrate. Mutations identified as detrimental to the protein structure in the 3-D model were generally associated to profound FAO and VLCAD protein deficiencies in the patient cells, however, some mutations affecting FAD binding or monomer-monomer interactions allowed a partial response to bezafibrate. On the other hand, bezafibrate restored near-normal FAO rates in some mutations predicted to have milder consequences on enzyme structure. Overall, combination of structural, biochemical, and pharmacological analysis allowed assessment of the relative severity of individual mutations, with possible applications for disease management and therapeutic approach. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Srour M.,University of Montréal |
Chitayat D.,Mount Sinai Hospital |
Chitayat D.,Hospital for Sick Children |
Caron V.,University of Montréal |
And 16 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013
Anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia, pulmonary hypoplasia, diaphragmatic hernia, and cardiac defects are the main features of PDAC syndrome. Recessive mutations in STRA6, encoding a membrane receptor for the retinol-binding protein, have been identified in some cases with PDAC syndrome, although many cases have remained unexplained. Using whole-exome sequencing, we found that two PDAC-syndrome-affected siblings, but not their unaffected sibling, were compound heterozygous for nonsense (c.355C>T [p.Arg119*]) and frameshift (c.1201-1202insCT [p.Ile403Serfs*15]) mutations in retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB). Transfection studies showed that p.Arg119* and p.Ile403Serfs*15 altered RARB had no transcriptional activity in response to ligands, confirming that the mutations induced a loss of function. We then sequenced RARB in 15 subjects with anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia and at least one other feature of PDAC syndrome. Surprisingly, three unrelated subjects with microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia showed de novo missense mutations affecting the same codon; two of the subjects had the c.1159C>T (Arg387Cys) mutation, whereas the other one carried the c.1159C>A (p.Arg387Ser) mutation. We found that compared to the wild-type receptor, p.Arg387Ser and p.Arg387Cys altered RARB induced a 2- to 3-fold increase in transcriptional activity in response to retinoic acid ligands, suggesting a gain-of-function mechanism. Our study thus suggests that both recessive and dominant mutations in RARB cause anophthalmia and/or microphthalmia and diaphragmatic hernia, providing further evidence of the crucial role of the retinoic acid pathway during eye development and organogenesis. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.
Philippe C.,University of Lorraine |
Amsallem D.,Service de Neuropediatrie |
Francannet C.,Service de Genetique Medicale |
Lambert L.,Nancy University Hospital Center |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Genetics | Year: 2010
Background: The FOXG1 gene has been recently implicated in the congenital form of Rett syndrome (RTT). It encodes the fork-head box protein G1, a winged-helix transcriptional repressor with expression restricted to testis and brain, where it is critical for forebrain development. So far, only two point mutations in FOXG1 have been reported in females affected by the congenital form of RTT. Aim: To assess the involvement of FOXG1 in the molecular aetiology of classical RTT and related disorders. Methods: The entire multi-exon coding sequence of FOXG1 was screened for point mutations and large rearrangements in a cohort of 35 MECP2/CDKL5 mutation-negative female patients including 31 classical and four congenital forms of RTT. Results: Two different de novo heterozygous FOXG1-truncating mutations were identified. The subject with the p.Trp308X mutation presented with a severe RTT-like neurodevelopmental disorder, whereas the p.Tyr400X allele was associated with a classical clinical RTT presentation. Conclusions: These new cases give additional support to the genetic heterogeneity in RTT and help to delineate the clinical spectrum of the FOXG1-related phenotypes. FOXG1 screening should be considered in the molecular diagnosis of RTT.
Simon D.,University of Bordeaux Segalen |
Laloo B.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Barillot M.,University of Bordeaux Segalen |
Barnetche T.,University of Bordeaux Segalen |
And 13 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2010
A family with dominant X-linked chondrodysplasia was previously described. The disease locus was ascribed to a 24 Mb interval in Xp11.3-q13.1. We have identified a variant (c.*281A>T) in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the HDAC6 gene that totally segregates with the disease. The variant is located in the seed sequence of hsa-miR-433. Our data showed that, in MG63 osteosarcoma cells, hsa-miR-433 (miR433) down-regulated both the expression of endogenous HDAC6 and that of an enhanced green fluorescent protein-reporter mRNA bearing the wild-type 3′-UTR of HDAC6. This effect was totally abrogated when the reporter mRNA bore the mutated HDAC6 3′-UTR. The HDAC6 protein was found to be over-expressed in thymus from an affected male fetus. Concomitantly, the level of total α-tubulin, a target of HDAC6, was found to be increased in the affected fetal thymus, whereas the level of acetylated α-tubulin was found to be profoundly decreased. Skin biopsies were obtained from a female patient who presented a striking body asymmetry with hypotrophy of the left limbs. The mutated HDAC6 allele was expressed in 31% of left arm-derived fibroblasts, whereas it was not expressed in the right arm. Overexpression of HDAC6 was observed in left arm-derived fibroblasts. Altogether these results strongly suggest that this HDAC6 3′-UTR variant suppressed hsa-miR-433-mediated post-transcriptional regulation causing the overexpression of HDAC6. This variant is likely to constitute the molecular cause of this new form of X-linked chondrodysplasia. This represents to our knowledge the first example of a skeletal disease caused by the loss of a miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation on its target mRNA. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Laberge A.-M.,Service de Genetique Medicale |
Laberge A.-M.,University of Montréal |
Burke W.,University of Washington
Seminars in Nephrology | Year: 2010
The clinical utility of many emerging genetic technologies has yet to be established. For many new genetic tests, no practice guidelines are available to help clinicians decide when and how to use them in practice. The clinical and public health implications of new genetic technologies are easiest to evaluate when these tests are compared with other genetic tests, including those already well established in clinical practice. Genetic tests can be divided into different categories based on their intent as follows: (1) to establish a diagnosis (genetic diagnostic tests), (2) to classify disease processes to assist management (gene expression profiling), (3) to predict drug response or side effects (pharmacogenomic tests), and (4) to predict susceptibility to disease (genetic susceptibility testing). As new genetic tests emerge, their translation into practice will depend on their performance based on laboratory standards, but also on their ability to enhance prevention or assist clinicians in diagnosing and treating patients. This article reviews the clinical and public health implications of different types of genetic tests, the evaluation of genetic tests from a public health perspective, and the need for partnership to achieve the potential for benefit of new genetic technologies. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Longepied G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Saut N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research |
Aknin-Seifer I.,Laboratoire Of Biologie Of La Reproduction |
Levy R.,Laboratoire Histologie Embryologie Cytogenetique CECOS |
And 5 more authors.
Human Reproduction | Year: 2010
BACKGROUND: Deletion of the entire AZFb interval from the Y chromosome is strictly associated with azoospermia arising from maturation arrest during meiosis. Here, we describe the exceptional case of an oligozoospermic man, 13-1217, with an AZFb + c (P5/distal-P1) deletion. Through the characterization of this patient, and two AZFb (P5/proximal-P1) patients with maturation arrest, we have explored three possible explanations for his exceptionally progressive spermatogenesis. METHODS: AND RESULTSWe have determined the precise breakpoints of the deletion in 13-1217, and shown that 13-1217 is deleted for more AZFb material than one of the AZFb-deleted men (13-5349). Immunocytochemical analysis of spermatocytes with an antibody against a synaptonemal complex component indicates synapsis to be largely unaffected in 13-1217, in contrast to 13-5349 where extended asynapsis is frequent. Using PCR-based analyses of RNA and DNA from the same testicular biopsy, we show that 13-1217 expresses post-meiotic germ cell markers in the absence of genomic DNA and transcripts from the AZFb and AZFc intervals. We have determined the Y chromosome haplogroup of 13-1217 to be HgL-M185. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the post-meiotic spermatogenesis in 13-1217 is not a consequence of mosaicism or retention of a key AZFb gene. On the contrary, since the Hg-L Y chromosome carried by 13-1217 is uncommon in Western Europe, a Y-linked modifier locus remains a possible explanation for the oligozoospermia observed in patient 13-1217. Further cases must now be studied to understand how germ cells complete spermatogenesis in the absence of the AZFb interval. © 2010 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved.
Lacombe D.,Bordeaux University Hospital Center |
Germain D.P.,Service de genetique medicale |
Germain D.P.,University of Versailles
Archives de Pediatrie | Year: 2014
Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inherited metabolic diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for one of the eleven enzymes involved in lysosomal catabolism of different glycosaminoglycans (or mucopolysaccharides). The different enzyme deficiencies result in a total of seven distinct mucopolysaccharidoses (I to IV, VI, VII and IX). This review considers the genetic and molecular aspects of the seven types of MPS. © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS.
Nizon M.,Service de Genetique Medicale
European Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2016
Homozygous frameshift variants in CNTNAP1 have recently been reported in patients with arthrogryposis and abnormal axon myelination. In two brothers with severe congenital hypotonia and foot deformities, we identified compound heterozygous variants in CNTNAP1, reporting the first causative missense variant, p.(Cys323Arg). Motor nerve conductions were markedly decreased. Nerve microscopical lesions confirmed a severe hypomyelinating process and showed loss of attachment sites of the myelin loops on the axons, which could be a characteristic of Caspr loss-of-function. We discuss the pathophysiology of the myelination process and we propose to consider this disorder as a congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 26 October 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.142. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.