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Sobrier M.-L.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Tsai Y.-C.,University of Pennsylvania | Perez C.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Leheup B.,Nancy University Hospital Center | And 9 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2016

POU1F1, a pituitary-specific POU-homeo domain transcription factor, plays an essential role in the specification of the somatotroph, lactotroph and thyrotroph lineages and in the activation of GH1, PRL and TSHβ transcription. Individuals with mutations in POU1F1 present with combined deficiency of GH, PRL and TSH. Here, we identified a heterozygous missense mutation with evidence of pathogenicity, at the POU1F1 locus, in a large family in which an isolated growth hormone deficiency segregates as an autosomal dominant trait. The corresponding p.Pro76Leu mutation maps to a conserved site within the POU1F1 transactivation domain. Bandshift assays revealed that the mutation alters wild-type POU1F1 binding to cognate sites within the hGH-LCR and hGH1 promoter, but not to sites within the PRL promoter, and it selectively increases binding affinity to sites within the hGH-LCR. Co-immunoprecipitation studies reveal that this substitution enhances interactions of POU1F1 with three of its cofactors, PITX1, LHX3a and ELK1, and that residue 76 plays a critical role in these interactions. The insertion of the mutation at the mouse Pou1f1 locus results in a dramatic loss of protein expression despite normal mRNA concentrations. Mice heterozygous for the p.Pro76Leu mutation were phenotypically normal while homozygotes demonstrated a dwarf phenotype. Overall, this study unveils the involvement of POU1F1 in dominantly inherited isolated GH deficiency and demonstrates a significant impact of the Pro76Leu mutation on DNA-binding activities, alterations in transactivating functions and interactions with cofactors. Our data further highlight difficulties in modeling human genetic disorders in the mouse despite apparent conservation of gene expression pathways and physiologic functions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Jeru I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Jeru I.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Charmion S.,Jean Monnet University | Cochet E.,Service de Genetique et dEmbryologie Medicales | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Objectives:TNFRSF1A is involved in an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorder called TNFR-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS). Most TNFRSF1A mutations are missense changes and, apart from those affecting conserved cysteines, their deleterious effect remains often questionable. This is especially true for the frequent R92Q mutation, which might not be responsible for TRAPS per se but represents a susceptibility factor to multifactorial inflammatory disorders. This study investigates TRAPS pathophysiology in a family exceptional by its size (13 members) and compares the consequences of several mutations affecting arginine 92.Methods:TNFRSF1A screening was performed by PCR-sequencing. Comparison of the 3-dimensional structure and electrostatic properties of wild-type and mutated TNFR1 proteins was performed by in silico homology modeling. TNFR1 expression was assessed by FACS analysis, western blotting and ELISA in lysates and supernatants of HEK293T cells transiently expressing wild-type and mutated TNFR1.Results:A TNFRSF1A heterozygous missense mutation, R92W (c.361C>T), was shown to perfectly segregate with typical TRAPS manifestations within the family investigated (p<5.10-4). It was associated with very high disease penetrance (0.9). Prediction of its impact on the protein structure revealed local conformational changes and alterations of the receptor electrostatic properties. R92W also impairs the TNFR1 expression at the cell surface and the levels of soluble receptor. Similar results were obtained with R92P, another mutation previously identified in a very small familial form with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. In contrast, TNFR1-R92Q behaves like the wild-type receptor.Conclusions:These data demonstrate the pathogenicity of a mutation affecting arginine 92, a residue whose involvement in inflammatory disorders is deeply debated. Combined with previous reports on arginine 92 mutations, this study discloses an unusual situation in which different amino acid substitutions at the same position in the protein are associated with a clinical spectrum bridging Mendelian to multifactorial conditions. © 2013 Jéru et al.

Jeru I.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Jeru I.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Cochet E.,Service de Genetique et dEmbryologie Medicales | Cochet E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder due to MEFV mutations and one of the most frequent Mediterranean genetic diseases. The observation of many heterozygous patients in whom a second mutated allele was excluded led to the proposal that heterozygosity could be causal. However, heterozygosity might be coincidental in many patients due to the very high rate of mutations in Mediterranean populations.Objective:To better delineate the pathogenicity of heterozygosity in order to improve genetic counselling and disease management.Methods:Complementary statistical approaches were used: estimation of FMF prevalence at population levels, genotype comparison in siblings from 63 familial forms, and genotype study in 557 patients from four Mediterranean populations.Results:At the population level, we did not observe any contribution of heterozygosity to disease prevalence. In affected siblings of patients carrying two MEFV mutations, 92% carry two mutated alleles, whereas 4% are heterozygous with typical FMF diagnosis. We demonstrated statistically that patients are more likely to be heterozygous than healthy individuals, as shown by the higher ratio heterozygous carriers/non carriers in patients (p<10-7-p<0.003). The risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF was estimated between 2.1×10-3 and 5.8×10-3 and the relative risk, as compared to non carriers, between 6.3 and 8.1.Conclusions:This is the first statistical demonstration that heterozygosity is not responsible for classical Mendelian FMF per se, but constitutes a susceptibility factor for clinically-similar multifactorial forms of the disease. We also provide a first estimate of the risk for heterozygotes to develop FMF. © 2013 Jéru et al.

Carabalona A.,INMED | Carabalona A.,Aix - Marseille University | Carabalona A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Beguin S.,INMED | And 27 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2012

Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH) is a human brain malformation caused by defective neuronal migration that results in ectopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles beneath a normal appearing cortex. Most affected patients have seizures and their cognitive level varies from normal to severely impaired. Mutations in the Filamin-A (or FLNA) gene are the main cause of PH, but the underlying pathological mechanism remains unknown. Although two FlnA knockout mouse strains have been generated, none of them showed the presence of ectopic nodules. To recapitulate the loss of FlnA function in the developing rat brain, we used an in utero RNA interference-mediated knockdown approach and successfully reproduced a PH phenotype in rats comparable with that observed in human patients. In FlnA-knockdown rats, we report that PH results from a disruption of the polarized radial glial scaffold in the ventricular zone altering progression of neural progenitors through the cell cycle and impairing migration of neurons into the cortical plate. Similar alterations of radial glia are observed in human PH brains of a 35-week fetus and a 3-month-old child, harboring distinct FLNA mutations not previously reported. Finally, juvenile FlnA-knockdown rats are highly susceptible to seizures, confirming the reliability of this novel animal model of PH. Our findings suggest that the disorganization of radial glia is the leading cause of PH pathogenesis associated with FLNA mutations.Rattus norvegicus FlnA mRNA (GenBank accession number FJ416060). © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Martin C.,University of Paris Descartes | Coolen N.,University of Paris Descartes | Wu Y.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Wu Y.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 14 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2013

Peribronchial angiogenesis may occur in cystic fibrosis and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A regulates angiogenesis in airways. Peribronchial vascularity and VEGF-A expression were examined using immunocytochemistry and morphometric analysis in lung sections obtained in 10 cystic fibrosis patients at transplantation versus 10 control nonsmokers, and in two strains of Cftr-deficient mice versus wild-type littermates. Airway epithelial NCI-H292 cells and primary cultures of noncystic fibrosis human airway epithelial cells were treated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitors (CFTR-inh172 or PPQ-102) or transfected with a CFTR small interfering (si)RNA with or without a selective epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Concentrations of VEGF-A and phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor were measured by ELISA. Peribronchial vascularity was increased in cystic fibrosis patients, but not in Cftr-deficient mice. VEGF-A immunostaining was localised to airway epithelium and was increased in cystic fibrosis patients and in Cftr-deficient mice. In cultured airway epithelial cells, treatment with CFTR inhibitors or transfection with CFTR siRNA induced a twofold increase in VEGF-A production. CFTR inhibitors triggered epidermal growth factor receptor phosphorylation that was required for VEGF-A synthesis. Cystic fibrosis airways at transplantation showed increased peribronchial vascularity and epithelial VEGF-A expression. CFTR dysfunction triggered epithelial synthesis of VEGF-A, which may contribute to vascular remodelling. Copyright © ERS 2013.

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