Malan V.,University of Paris Descartes |
Rajan D.,Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute |
Thomas S.,University of Paris Descartes |
Shaw A.C.,University College London |
And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2010
By using a combination of array comparative genomic hybridization and a candidate gene approach, we identified nuclear factor I/X (NFIX) deletions or nonsense mutation in three sporadic cases of a Sotos-like overgrowth syndrome with advanced bone age, macrocephaly, developmental delay, scoliosis, and unusual facies. Unlike the aforementioned human syndrome, Nfix-deficient mice are unable to gain weight and die in the first 3 postnatal weeks, while they also present with a spinal deformation and decreased bone mineralization. These features prompted us to consider NFIX as a candidate gene for Marshall-Smith syndrome (MSS), a severe malformation syndrome characterized by failure to thrive, respiratory insufficiency, accelerated osseous maturation, kyphoscoliosis, osteopenia, and unusual facies. Distinct frameshift and splice NFIX mutations that escaped nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) were identified in nine MSS subjects. NFIX belongs to the Nuclear factor one (NFI) family of transcription factors, but its specific function is presently unknown. We demonstrate that NFIX is normally expressed prenatally during human brain development and skeletogenesis. These findings demonstrate that allelic NFIX mutations trigger distinct phenotypes, depending specifically on their impact on NMD. © 2010 The American Society of Human Genetics.
Simpson M.A.,King's College London |
Irving M.D.,King's College London |
Irving M.D.,Guys Hospital |
Asilmaz E.,King's College London |
And 14 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011
We used an exome-sequencing strategy and identified an allelic series of NOTCH2 mutations in Hajdu-Cheney syndrome, an autosomal dominant multisystem disorder characterized by severe and progressive bone loss. The Hajdu-Cheney syndrome mutations are predicted to lead to the premature truncation of NOTCH2 with either disruption or loss of the C-terminal proline-glutamate-serine- threonine-rich proteolytic recognition sequence, the absence of which has previously been shown to increase Notch signaling. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Brest University Hospital Center, Nancy University Hospital Center, Cytogenetics Laboratory, Medecine Legale and 25 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical genetics | Year: 2016
Microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) is commonly used in diagnosing patients with intellectual disability (ID) with or without congenital malformation. Because aCGH interrogates with the whole genome, there is a risk of being confronted with incidental findings (IF). In order to anticipate the ethical issues of IF with the generalization of new genome-wide analysis technologies, we questioned French clinicians and cytogeneticists about the situations they have faced regarding IF from aCGH. Sixty-five IF were reported. Forty corresponded to autosomal dominant diseases with incomplete penetrance, 7 to autosomal dominant diseases with complete penetrance, 14 to X-linked diseases, and 4 were heterozygotes for autosomal recessive diseases with a high prevalence of heterozygotes in the population. Therapeutic/preventive measures or genetic counselling could be argued for all cases except four. These four IF were intentionally not returned to the patients. Clinicians reported difficulties in returning the results in 29% of the cases, mainly when the question of IF had not been anticipated. Indeed, at the time of the investigation, only 48% of the clinicians used consents mentioning the risk of IF. With the emergence of new technologies, there is a need to report such national experiences; they show the importance of pre-test information on IF.
PubMed | Montpellier University, Histologie Embryologie Cytogenetique, Nancy University Hospital Center, Service de Genetique Clinique and 18 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics in medicine : official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics | Year: 2016
Treacher Collins/Franceschetti syndrome (TCS; OMIM 154500) is a disorder of craniofacial development belonging to the heterogeneous group of mandibulofacial dysostoses. TCS is classically characterized by bilateral mandibular and malar hypoplasia, downward-slanting palpebral fissures, and microtia. To date, three genes have been identified in TCS:,TCOF1, POLR1D, and POLR1C.We report a clinical and extensive molecular study, including TCOF1, POLR1D, POLR1C, and EFTUD2 genes, in a series of 146 patients with TCS. Phenotype-genotype correlations were investigated for 19 clinical features, between TCOF1 and POLR1D, and the type of mutation or its localization in the TCOF1 gene.We identified 92/146 patients (63%) with a molecular anomaly within TCOF1, 9/146 (6%) within POLR1D, and none within POLR1C. Among the atypical negative patients (with intellectual disability and/or microcephaly), we identified four patients carrying a mutation in EFTUD2 and two patients with 5q32 deletion encompassing TCOF1 and CAMK2A in particular. Congenital cardiac defects occurred more frequently among patients with TCOF1 mutation (7/92, 8%) than reported in the literature.Even though TCOF1 and POLR1D were associated with extreme clinical variability, we found no phenotype-genotype correlation. In cases with a typical phenotype of TCS, 6/146 (4%) remained with an unidentified molecular defect.
PubMed | Service de Neuropediatrie, University of Washington, St. Mary's University, Institute Of Genomique Fonctionnelle and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nature genetics | Year: 2016
TSHZ3, which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor, was recently positioned as a hub gene in a module of the genes with the highest expression in the developing human neocortex, but its functions remained unknown. Here we identify TSHZ3 as the critical region for a syndrome associated with heterozygous deletions at 19q12-q13.11, which includes autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In Tshz3-null mice, differentially expressed genes include layer-specific markers of cerebral cortical projection neurons (CPNs), and the human orthologs of these genes are strongly associated with ASD. Furthermore, mice heterozygous for Tshz3 show functional changes at synapses established by CPNs and exhibit core ASD-like behavioral abnormalities. These findings highlight essential roles for Tshz3 in CPN development and function, whose alterations can account for ASD in the newly defined TSHZ3 deletion syndrome.
Jones W.D.,University of London |
Jones W.D.,Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children |
Dafou D.,King's College London |
McEntagart M.,University of London |
And 11 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2012
Excessive growth of terminal hair around the elbows (hypertrichosis cubiti) has been reported both in isolation and in association with a variable spectrum of associated phenotypic features. We identified a cohort of six individuals with hypertrichosis cubiti associated with short stature, intellectual disability, and a distinctive facial appearance, consistent with a diagnosis of Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS). Utilizing a whole-exome sequencing approach, we identified de novo mutations in MLL in five of the six individuals. MLL encodes a histone methyltransferase that regulates chromatin-mediated transcription through the catalysis of methylation of histone H3K4. Each of the five mutations is predicted to result in premature termination of the protein product. Furthermore, we demonstrate that transcripts arising from the mutant alleles are subject to nonsense-mediated decay. These findings define the genetic basis of WSS, provide additional evidence for the role of haploinsufficency of histone-modification enzymes in multiple-congenital-anomaly syndromes, and further illustrate the importance of the regulation of histone modification in development. © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics.
PubMed | Hopital Robert Debre, Service de Cytogenetique, Service de genetique clinique, Center de Genetique et Center de Reference Anomalies du Developpement et Syndromes Malformatifs de lEst and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Clinical genetics | Year: 2016
Proximal 16p11.2 microdeletions are recurrent microdeletions with an overall prevalence of 0.03%. In patients with segmentation defects of the vertebra (SDV), a burden of this microdeletion was observed with TBX6 as a candidate gene for SDV. In a published cohort of patients with congenital scoliosis (CS), TBX6 haploinsufficiency was compound heterozygous with a common haplotype. Besides, a single three-generation family with spondylocostal dysostosis (SCD) was reported with a heterozygous stop-loss of TBX6. These observations questioned both on the inheritance mode and on the variable expressivity associated with TBX6 associated SDV. Based on a national recruitment of 56 patients with SDV, we describe 4 patients with variable SDV ranging from CS to SCD associated with biallelic variations of TBX6. Two patients with CS were carrying a proximal 16p11.2 microdeletion associated with the previously reported haplotype. One patient with extensive SDV was carrying a proximal 16p11.2 microdeletion associated with a TBX6 rare missense change. One patient with a clinical diagnosis of SCD was compound heterozygous for two TBX6 rare missense changes. The three rare variants were affecting the chromatin-binding domain. Our data illustrate the variable expressivity of recessive TBX6 ranging from CS to SCD.
PubMed | Center Dactivite Of Neurologie Pediatrique, University of Rochester, Service de Genetique Clinique, University of Strasbourg and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of human genetics | Year: 2016
Gillespie syndrome (GS) is a rare variant form of aniridia characterized by non-progressive cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and iris hypoplasia. Unlike the more common dominant and sporadic forms of aniridia, there has been no significant association with PAX6 mutations in individuals with GS and the mode of inheritance of the disease had long been regarded as uncertain. Using a combination of trio-based whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing in five simplex GS-affected families, we found homozygous or compound heterozygous truncating mutations (c.4672C>T [p.Gln1558()], c.2182C>T [p.Arg728()], c.6366+3A>T [p.Gly2102Valfs5()], and c.6664+5G>T [p.Ala2221Valfs23()]) and de novo heterozygous mutations (c.7687_7689del [p.Lys2563del] and c.7659T>G [p.Phe2553Leu]) in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 gene (ITPR1). ITPR1 encodes one of the three members of the IP3-receptors family that form Ca(2+) release channels localized predominantly in membranes of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores. The truncation mutants, which encompass the IP3-binding domain and varying lengths of the modulatory domain, did not form functional channels when produced in a heterologous cell system. Furthermore, ITPR1 p.Lys2563del mutant did not form IP3-induced Ca(2+) channels but exerted a negative effect when co-produced with wild-type ITPR1 channel activity. In total, these results demonstrate biallelic and monoallelic ITPR1 mutations as the underlying genetic defects for Gillespie syndrome, further extending the spectrum of ITPR1-related diseases.
PubMed | University of Bordeaux Segalen, University Paul Sabatier, Service de Genetique Clinique, Service dOphtalmologie and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome research | Year: 2016
Ocular developmental anomalies (ODA) such as anophthalmia/microphthalmia (AM) or anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) have an estimated combined prevalence of 3.7 in 10,000 births. Mutations in SOX2 are the most frequent contributors to severe ODA, yet account for a minority of the genetic drivers. To identify novel ODA loci, we conducted targeted high-throughput sequencing of 407 candidate genes in an initial cohort of 22 sporadic ODA patients. Patched 1 (PTCH1), an inhibitor of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, harbored an enrichment of rare heterozygous variants in comparison to either controls, or to the other candidate genes (four missense and one frameshift); targeted resequencing of PTCH1 in a second cohort of 48 ODA patients identified two additional rare nonsynonymous changes. Using multiple transient models and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated mutant, we show physiologically relevant phenotypes altering SHH signaling and eye development upon abrogation of ptch1 in zebrafish for which in vivo complementation assays using these models showed that all six patient missense mutations affect SHH signaling. Finally, through transcriptomic and ChIP analyses, we show that SOX2 binds to an intronic domain of the PTCH1 locus to regulate PTCH1 expression, findings that were validated both in vitro and in vivo. Together, these results demonstrate that PTCH1 mutations contribute to as much as 10% of ODA, identify the SHH signaling pathway as a novel effector of SOX2 activity during human ocular development, and indicate that ODA is likely the result of overactive SHH signaling in humans harboring mutations in either PTCH1 or SOX2.
De Pontual L.,University of Paris Descartes |
De Pontual L.,University of Paris 13 |
Yao E.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center |
Callier P.,Service de Genetique |
And 15 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2011
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in animals and plants. Studies in a variety of model organisms show that miRNAs modulate developmental processes. To our knowledge, the only hereditary condition known to be caused by a miRNA is a form of adult-onset non-syndromic deafness, and no miRNA mutation has yet been found to be responsible for any developmental defect in humans. Here we report the identification of germline hemizygous deletions of MIR17HG, encoding the miR-17∼92 polycistronic miRNA cluster, in individuals with microcephaly, short stature and digital abnormalities. We demonstrate that haploinsufficiency of miR-17∼92 is responsible for these developmental abnormalities by showing that mice harboring targeted deletion of the miR-17∼92 cluster phenocopy several key features of the affected humans. These findings identify a regulatory function for miR-17∼92 in growth and skeletal development and represent the first example of an miRNA gene responsible for a syndromic developmental defect in humans. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.