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Jaquet A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Wandeler G.,Fann University Hospital Center | Wandeler G.,University of Bern | Nouaman M.,Programme PACCI | And 10 more authors.
Journal of the International AIDS Society | Year: 2017

Introduction: Liver fibrosis is often the first stage of liver disease in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in industrialized countries. However, little is known about liver fibrosis and its correlates among PLWHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The study was undertaken in three HIV referral clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Togo. Enrolled PLWHIV underwent a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis combining liver stiffness measure (LSM) with transient elastography and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI). Significant liver fibrosis was defined as LSM ≥7.1 kPa. Patients were screened for alcohol use (alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT)-C questionnaire), hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen, hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) antibody and anti-hepatitis C (HCV) antibody. A logistic regression model was used to identify the factors associated with significant liver fibrosis. Results: A total of 807 PLWHIV were screened at a median age of 43 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36-50). Their median CD4 count was 393 cells/mm3 (IQR: 234-563) and 682 (84.5%) were on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The prevalence of significant fibrosis was 5.3% (3.8-6.7). Infections with HBV and HCV were identified in 74 (9.2%) and nine (1.1%) participants. Main factors associated with liver fibrosis were alcohol use (AUDIT-C >6): (odds ratio (OR) = 4.0, confidence interval (CI): 1.2- 14.0), (Ref. AUDIT-C <4) and HBV infection (OR = 2.9, CI: 1.2-7.2). Of the 74 patients positively screened for HBV, 50.0% were on a tenofovir-based ART regimen. Overall, 10% of HIV/HBV coinfected patients were detected with a positive HDV antibody with a higher prevalence in patients with a significant liver fibrosis (43.0%) compared to others (6.3%) (p = 0.01). Conclusions: Considering the WHO recommendations to screen for HBV infection and treat co-infected patients with tenofovir-based ART, screening of alcohol use and brief interventions to prevent alcohol abuse should be implemented in West Africa, especially in HBV/HIV co-infected patients. © 2017 Jaquet A et al; licensee International AIDS Society.

PubMed | Bordeaux University Hospital Center, French Institute of Health and Medical Research, Service de hepato gastroenterologie, Service de maladies infectieuses et tropicales and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Prisoners represent a vulnerable population for blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections which can potentially lead to liver fibrosis and ultimately cirrhosis. However, little is known about the prevalence of liver fibrosis and associated risk factors among inmates in sub-Saharan Africa.Screening of liver fibrosis was undertaken in a randomly selected sample of male inmates incarcerated in Lome, Togo and in Dakar, Senegal using transient elastography. A liver stiffness measurement 9.5KPa was retained to define the presence of a severe liver fibrosis. All included inmates were also screened for HIV, Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection. Substances abuse including alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use were assessed during face-to-face interviews. Odds Ratio (OR) estimates were computed with their 95% Confidence Interval (CI) to identify factors associated with severe liver fibrosis.Overall, 680 inmates were included with a median age of 30years [interquartile range: 24-35]. The prevalence of severe fibrosis was 3.1% (4.9% in Lome and 1.2% in Dakar). Infections with HIV, HBV and HCV were identified in 2.6%, 12.5% and 0.5% of inmates, respectively. Factors associated with a severe liver fibrosis were HIV infection (OR=7.6; CI 1.8-32.1), HBV infection (OR=4.8; CI 1.8-12.8), HCV infection (OR=52.6; CI 4.1-673.8), use of traditional medicines (OR=3.7; CI 1.4-10.1) and being incarcerated in Lome (OR=3.3; CI 1.1-9.8) compared to Dakar.HIV infection and viral hepatitis infections were identified as important and independent determinants of severe liver fibrosis. While access to active antiviral therapies against HIV and viral hepatitis expands in Africa, adapted strategies for the monitoring of liver disease need to be explored, especially in vulnerable populations such as inmates.

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