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Hôpital-Camfrout, France

Pasmant E.,Service de Biochimie et de Gene Tique Mole Culaire | Pasmant E.,University of Paris Descartes | Goussard P.,Service de Biochimie et de Gene Tique Mole Culaire | Baranes L.,Service de Biochimie et de Gene Tique Mole Culaire | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Human Genetics

The wide clinical spectrum of the ABCB4 gene (ATP-binding cassette subfamily B member 4) deficiency syndromes in humans includes low phospholipid-associated cholelithiasis (LPAC), intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP), oral contraceptives-induced cholestasis (CIC), and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 3 (PFIC3). No ABCB4 mutations are found in a significant proportion of patients with these syndromes. In the present study, 102 unrelated adult patients with LPAC (43 patients) or CIC/ICP (59 patients) were screened for ABCB4 mutations using DNA sequencing. Heterozygous ABCB4 point or short insertion/deletion mutations were found in 37% (16/43) of the LPAC patients and in 27% (16/59) of the ICP/CIC patients. High-resolution gene dosage methodologies were used in the 70 negative patients. Here, we describe for the first time ABCB4 partial or complete heterozygous deletions in 7% (3/43) of the LPAC patients, and in 2% (1/59) of the ICP/CIC patients. Our observations urge to systematically test patients with LPAC, ICP/CIC, and also children with PFIC3 for the presence of ABCB4 deletions using molecular tools allowing detection of gross rearrangements. In clinical practice, a comprehensive ABCB4 alteration-screening algorithm will permit the use of ABCB4 genotyping to confirm the diagnosis of LPAC or ICP/CIC, and allow familial testing. An early diagnosis of these biliary diseases may be beneficial because of the preventive effect of ursodeoxycholic acid on biliary complications. Further comparative studies of patients with well-characterized genotypes (including deletions) and phenotypes will help determine whether ABCB4 mutation types influence clinical outcomes. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

O'Toole D.,St Jamess Hospital | Couvelard A.,Service dAnatomie Pathologique | Couvelard A.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rebours V.,Service de Gastroente Rologie | And 8 more authors.
Endocrine-Related Cancer

Response rates to cytotoxics in gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) vary; recent trials demonstrated lack of objective response rates in up to 70% of patients. Identification of predictive therapeutic biomarkers would be beneficial in the treatment of GEP. Selected markers with known or suspected capability of predicting response to cytotoxics or prognosis (Ki-67, p53, multidrug resistance protein-1 (MDR1), Akt, thymidylate synthase (TS), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), CA9, cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1, mismatch repair gene - human mutL homolog 1 (hLMH1), and Bcl-2) were analyzed using immunohistochemisrtry in 60 treatment-naive patients receiving chemotherapy (n=46) or chemoembolization (n=14) for inoperable advanced and/or metastatic GEP and correlated with prognosis (survival and response rates). Therapy included systemic chemotherapy with streptozotocin (n=28), doxorubicin (n=14), 5-fluorouracil (n=18), and etoposide/cisplatinum (n=16), or chemoembolization (streptozotocin, 9; doxorubicin, 5). Factors associated with overall survival in the entire cohort were Ki-67, P<0.001; tumor grade, P<0.001; tumor differentiation, P<0.001; CA9, P=0.004; Akt, P=0.01; HIF-1, P<0.001; p53, P<0.0001; and hMLH1, P=0.005. Markers associated with treatment response included overall group: Akt and PTEN (P=0.05 and 0.05 respectively); streptozotocin: Akt (P=0.07), TS (P=0.02), and PTEN (P=0.017); doxorubicin: Ki-67 (P=0.05), Akt (P=0.06), and CA9 (P=0.02). At multivariate analysis, Akt was significantly associated with a nonresponse to therapy (objective response (OR): 0.2 (0.05-0.8)). For patients receiving only systemic chemotherapy (n=46), PTEN (0.04) and hLMH1 (0.03) were correlated with treatment response and for individual molecules were streptozotocin: PTEN (P=0.008) and hLMH1 (0.07); doxorubicin: Akt (P=0.09), CA9 (P=0.09), and hLMH1 (P=0.09). These results demonstrate a number of new prognostic biomarkers in GEP-NET, and in addition, response to chemotherapy was correlated with a simple panel of selected markers (such as CA9, Akt, PTEN, TS, and hLMH1). © 2010 Society for Endocrinology. Source

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