Servei dEpidemiologia

Eixample, Spain

Servei dEpidemiologia

Eixample, Spain
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Hurtado I.,CIBER ISCIII | Garcia de Olalla P.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Albiach D.,Colectivo Lambda de Valencia | Martin M.,Unitat dEpidemiologia i Estadistica | And 2 more authors.
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2010

An intervention in venues for interaction used by men who have sex with men in Valencia (Spain) was performed to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or avoid delay in diagnosis and to facilitate contact with the health circuit. Information was provided on prevention and a rapid test for HIV and syphilis was performed. We contacted 500 men and the intervention was performed in 171; 37% of the subjects in saunas and one in four of those in prostitution apartments had never been tested. The prevalence of HIV was 1.6% (n=2) in the saunas, and 11% (n=5) in the apartments (n=5). For syphilis, these percentages were 5% and 2.3% respectively. The intervention revealed the existence of highly exposed population groups with low compliance and facilitated access to the health system in these groups. © 2008 SESPAS.


Roy K.M.,Health Protection Scotland | Galmes-Truyols A.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Gimenez-Duran J.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Anderson E.,Greater Glasgow and Clyde NHS Board | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Hospital Infection | Year: 2012

Background: Hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is not infrequent among haemodialysis patients. Most published reports suggest that patient-to-patient spread, either directly or indirectly, is the most common mode of transmission in renal units. Aim: To investigate the source of an outbreak, and the route of transmission, of acute HCV infection in two Scottish patients occurring within eight weeks of receiving haemodialysis in the same unit while on holiday in Majorca. Methods: This was an international epidemiological and molecular investigation of HCV infection among a cohort of haemodialysis patients from nine countries. Findings: No further HCV-positive infections were observed among residents and holidaymakers receiving haemodialysis at the unit in Majorca. Molecular investigations confirmed that a Spanish healthcare worker (HCW) was the source of infection for the two Scottish patients. The investigators were unable to determine the route of transmission. Conclusions: This outbreak is the first reported case of HCW-to-patient transmission of HCV in a renal unit, and the third reported case of transmission involving a HCW who had not performed invasive procedures. The issue of whether renal units are an exceptional case with regards to the risk of transmission associated with non-invasive procedures should be considered, in conjunction with the need to improve surveillance of blood-borne virus transmissions in renal units in the UK and abroad. © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society.


Hoyos Miller J.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Hoyos Miller J.,CIBER ISCIII | Fernandez-Balbuena S.,Institute Salud Carlos III | Belza Egozcue M.J.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 8 more authors.
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica | Year: 2014

Introduction The role of pre- and post-test counselling in new HIV testing strategies to reduce delayed diagnosis has been debated. Data on time devoted to counselling are scarce. One approach to this problem is to explore patients' views on the time devoted to counselling by venue of their last HIV test. Methods We analysed data from 1568 people with a previous HIV test who attended a mobile HIV testing program in Madrid between May and December 2008. Results The majority (71%) were men (48% had had sex with other men), 51% were <30 years, 40% were foreigners, 56% had a university degree, and 40% had the most recent HIV test within the last year. As regards pre-test counselling, 30% stated they were told only that they would receive the test; 26.3% reported <10 min; 20.4% about 10 min; and 24.2%, 15 min or more. For post-test counselling: 40.2% stated they were told only that the test was negative; 24.9% reported 2-6 min; 16.4% about 10 min; and 18.5%, 15 min or more. The percentage of participants who reported no counselling time was higher among those tested in general health services: primary care, hospital settings and private laboratories (over 40% in pre-test, over 50% in post-test counselling). Women received less counselling time than men in almost all settings. Conclusion Policies to expand HIV testing in general health services should take this current medical behaviour into account. Any mention of the need for counselling can be a barrier to expansion, because HIV is becoming less of a priority in developed countries. Oral consent should be the only requirement. © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L.


Besoain F.,University of Barcelona | Besoain F.,University of Talca | Perez-Navarro A.,University of Barcelona | Cayla J.A.,Servei dEpidemiologia | And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Health Geographics | Year: 2015

Background: Advances in the development of information and communication technologies have facilitated social interrelationships, but also sexual contacts without appropriate preventive measures. In this paper, we will focus on situations in which people use applications to meet sexual partners nearby, which could increase their chance of exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STI). How can we encourage users to adopt preventive measures without violating their privacy or infringing on the character of the application? Methods: To achieve the goal of preventing STI, we have used the design and creation methodology and have developed a prototype software package. This prototype follows the RESTful services principles and has two parts: an Android OS application with emphasis on ubiquitous computing and designed according to General Responsibility Assignment Software Patterns (GRASP), and a server with a web page. To choose the preventive messages, we performed a test in 17 men who have sex with men (MSM). Results: Our software sends preventive notifications to users when it detects situations such as the activation of particular applications on their smartphones, or their proximity to areas with a high probability of intercourse (hot zones). The underlying idea is the same as that for warning messages on cigarette packets, since users read the message just when they are going to smoke. The messages used have been selected from a list that has been rated by the users themselves. The most popular message is "Enjoy sex and enjoy life. Do not expose yourself to HIV". The user is unaware of the software, which runs in the background. Conclusions: Ubiquitous computing may be useful for alerting users with preventive and educational messages. The proposed application is non-intrusive because: 1) the users themselves decide to install it and, therefore, users' privacy rights are preserved; 2) it sends a message that helps users think about taking appropriate preventive measures; and 3) it works in the background without interfering with users unless a trigger situation is detected. Thus, this type of application could become an important tool in the complex task of STI prevention. © 2015 Besoain et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


PubMed | Servei dEpidemiologia, Servei de Programes i Intervencions Preventives and CIBER ISCIII
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gaceta sanitaria | Year: 2015

To explore views about risky sexual behaviors and perceptions of HIV, and to propose interventions for preventing HIV infections in a group of men who have sex with men.We performed a qualitative study in a sample of 13 men who have sex with men, who were participating in an HIV-seronegative cohort, and who we contacted via saunas for the gay community in Barcelona (Spain). We performed in-depth semi-structured interviews, followed by content analysis.Risky sexual behaviors were associated with masculinity related to strong sexual needs, certain sexual exchange venues (such as saunas, private parties and clubs), drug use, and a desire to experiment with risk and ones own sexuality. HIV infection was perceived as a normalized disease, although becoming infected was still associated with shame and guilt. Proposed interventions included raising awareness of what it is like to live with HIV, generating greater social alarm, incorporating new technologies in prevention, and intensifying activity at gay venues.The concept of masculinity plays a fundamental role in sexual practices among men who have sex with men. We suggest renewed innovation in preventive programs and incorporating the perception of risk and HIV infection from a gender perspective.


Tudo G.,University of Barcelona | Rey E.,University of Barcelona | Borrell S.,University of Barcelona | Alcaide F.,Hospital Universitari Of Bellvitge Idibell | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

Objectives: To determine the proportion and type of mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates resistant to streptomycin, and their relationship with the level of resistance and with the epidemiological molecular pattern of the isolates. Methods: Sixty-nine streptomycin-resistant isolates from a M. tuberculosis strain collection (1995-2005) from Barcelona were studied. The MIC of streptomycin for each isolate was determined using the proportions method with Middlebrook 7H11 medium. The entire rpsL gene and two specific fragments of the rrs gene (the 530 loop and the 912 region) were sequenced. IS6110-restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping were performed in each isolate. Results: Twenty-six (26/69, 37.7%) streptomycin-resistant isolates presented a mutation in either the rpsL gene and/or the rrs530 loop, with no mutation in the rrs912 region. Seventeen (24.6%) isolates showed rpsL mutations (codons 43 and 88) associated with high MIC levels. Nine (13.0%) isolates had alterations in the rrs gene (A513T, A513C and C516T). Nineteen isolates (19/64, 29.7%) were classified into seven clusters (containing 2-5 isolates per cluster). Nineteen different spoligotype patterns were found. All the LAM3 spoligotype isolates (10/67, 14.9%) were associated with a C491T change in the rrs gene, being also observed in all LAM3 streptomycin-susceptible isolates. Conclusions: Mutations in the rpsL and rrs genes were detected in 37.7% of streptomycin-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. High-level resistance was associated with mutations in the rpsL gene, whereas wild-type isolates showed low MIC levels. The presence of the C491T substitution in the rrs gene in streptomycin-susceptible and -resistant isolates demonstrates that this change is an epidemiological marker associated with LAM3 sublineage. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Calciati E.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Lafuente S.,Servei dEpidemiologia | De Simo M.,Laboratori Of Microbiologia | Balfagon P.,Institute Of Seguretat Alimentaria | And 2 more authors.
Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica | Year: 2012

Introduction: Campylobacter outbreaks are less common and described than sporadic Campylobacteriosis. Methods: We describe the epidemiological investigation including stool examination and bacteriological typing of a Campylobacter outbreak affecting 75 primary school children. Results: The highest risk ratio was associated with the food served 4 days before the peak of cases, namely roast chicken and Russian salad. Discussion: Poor food preparation practices and deficient kitchen facilities appear to be key issues for cross-contamination of Campylobacter from raw chicken to cooked food. © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L.


Galmes Truyols A.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Duran J.G.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Riutort A.N.,Servei dEpidemiologia | Cerda G.A.,Servei dEpidemiologia | And 3 more authors.
Gaceta Sanitaria | Year: 2011

We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR = 60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3) and razor shells (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9). Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the necessary laboratory resources to study food-borne norovirus outbreaks. © 2010 SESPAS.


PubMed | Servei dEpidemiologia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Enfermedades infecciosas y microbiologia clinica | Year: 2012

Campylobacter outbreaks are less common and described than sporadic Campylobacteriosis.We describe the epidemiological investigation including stool examination and bacteriological typing of a Campylobacter outbreak affecting 75 primary school children.The highest risk ratio was associated with the food served 4 days before the peak of cases, namely roast chicken and Russian salad.Poor food preparation practices and deficient kitchen facilities appear to be key issues for cross-contamination of Campylobacter from raw chicken to cooked food.


PubMed | Servei dEpidemiologia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gaceta sanitaria | Year: 2011

We describe investigation into an outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with oyster consumption. A survey was conducted in 346 exposed persons, 266 of whom were cases. Only 14 feces samples from patients were sent to the National Microbiology Laboratory. Oysters collected at the production site were sent to the National Food Center. The oysters met the microbiological quality standard required before sale, which did not include virus investigation. Epidemiological analysis showed an association between gastroenteritis and consumption of oysters (OR = 60.4; 95% CI: 26.2-139.3) and razor shells (OR = 3.13; 95% CI: 1.4-6.9). Microbiological analysis confirmed norovirus in affected individuals but not in the oysters that had been tested after a longer purification period than those consumed. Food with a special risk of norovirus transmission should be strictly monitored. Investigators should dispose of the necessary laboratory resources to study food-borne norovirus outbreaks.

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