Sibila O.,Hospital Of La Santa Creu I Sant Pau |
Sibila O.,Biomedical Research Institute Sant Pau |
Ferrer M.,Servei de Pneumologia |
Ferrer M.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS |
And 7 more authors.
Minerva Anestesiologica | Year: 2014
Community-acquired Pneumonia (CAP) is the first leading infectious cause of death in developed countries. The mortality rate in severe CAP is very high and has not changed in recent years, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and supportive measures. Several studies have identified an excessive host inflammatory response as a marker of poor prognosis in CAP. Corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory and immunosupressive agents widely used in modern medicine. Chronic use of corticosteroids has been related to immunosuppression and higher incidence of pneumonia due to opportunistic and high resistant bacteria. However, the use of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy in CAP may be beneficial due to their anti-inflammatory effect. Experimental pneumonia studies showed that corticosteroid administration was associated with a reduction in circulating and pulmonary cytokine levels, an improvement in histopathological severity scores and a decreased bacterial burden. Several randomized controlled trials (RCT) testing the usefulness of corticosteroids in CAP have been performed in the recent years with conflicting results. However, two recent meta-analyses found improved mortality in the subgroup with severe CAP and/or receiving >5 days of glucocorticoid treatment. Dosage, duration of treatment and side effects are two important aspects not well determined yet. This review discusses the association of corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy and its association with clinical outcomes and side effects in patients with CAP.
Tarres J.,Institute Catala Of La Salut |
Alberti C.,Institute Catala dAvaluacions Mediques i Sanitaries |
Martinez-Artes X.,Institute Catala Of La Salut |
Abos-Herrandiz R.,Institute Catala Of La Salut |
And 10 more authors.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2013
Objectives: Few studies have focused on pleural mesothelioma and environmental exposure in individuals residing around an industrial source of asbestos. The aim of this study is to determine whether residential distance and wind conditions are related to the risk of developing pleural mesothelioma. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study carried out in an area of Barcelona province (Catalonia, Spain), 24 environmental pleural mesothelioma cases were diagnosed between 2000 and 2009. We calculated the age-standardised incidence rate ratios of developing this disease in the population studied, taking into account the residential distance from the plant. For cases living within a 500-m radius of the plant, the geographical location in relation to the factory was also assessed. Results: The incidence rate of environmental pleural mesothelioma was higher in the population living within 500 m of the plant than in those living in a radius of 500-2000 m and much higher than those living at 2000-10 000 m. The highest incidence rate ratio for pleural mesothelioma (161.9) was found in the southeast quadrant of the 500-m area, coinciding with the predominant wind direction. Conclusions: Residential distance from an industrial source of asbestos and local wind conditions have a considerable impact on the risk of developing environmental pleural mesothelioma.
Raimondi A.,University of Barcelona |
Blanco I.,University of Barcelona |
Pomares X.,Servei de Pneumologia |
Barbera J.A.,University of Barcelona
Archivos de Bronconeumologia | Year: 2013
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of epistaxis, telangiectasia and vascular malformations. Pulmonary vascular complications associated with this disease include pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVM) and, less frequently, pulmonary hypertension (PH).We report the case of a patient who presented multiple pulmonary AVM and PH probably due to HHT. Embolization was carried out on one of the AVM and the patient received specific pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment with an endothelin receptor antagonist. We also described the patient's functional and hemodynamic improvement after almost 3 years of follow-up. © 2012 SEPAR.
Domingo C.,Servei de Pneumologia
Journal of biological regulators and homeostatic agents | Year: 2013
Omalizumab is an effective drug for allergic asthma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerance of this drug in non-allergic GINA step V asthma patients. This study was single-centre, prospective, open-label, observational, naturalistic. Non-allergic asthma patients requiring a mean dose of oral prednisolone of at least 5 mg/day during greater than or equal to 1 year or an accumulated oral corticosteroid dose/year greater than or equal to 1500 mg were enrolled. At entry and the end of the 12-month follow-up we measured blood eosinophilia and IgE concentration; at every monthly visit a forced spirometry and exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (NO) were carried out. The subjects were seven adult patients (5 female), age range 37-63 years, with the following mean values: IgE: 226.7+/-176 IU/mL; FVC 74+/-18 percent; FEV1 57+/-11 percent; NO: 21.2+/-7 ppb. The study was approved by the IRB of the hospital. One patient decided to stop treatment after 12 weeks and was excluded from the evaluation. We did not observe changes in eosinophil count, spirometry or NO values. Three patients considered responders did not need prednisolone during the follow-up. The mean daily dose of prednisolone fell from 6.6+/-8.1 mg/day at entry to 1.5+/-2.3 mg/day (p less than 0.16) at the end of follow-up. The mean monthly accumulated dose fell from 92+/-112 to 12+/-26 mg/month (p=0.26). Total blood IgE increased 1.93-fold. Side effects were only local: treatment tolerance was excellent; three out of six patients seemed to slightly benefit from anti-IgE treatment; to date there is no evidence strong enough to systematically prescribe omalizumab in non-allergic asthma patients.
PubMed | Servei de Pneumologia
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery | Year: 2011
To evaluate the usefulness of the examination of the upper airway, paying special attention to the Friedman tongue position (FTP), to confirm obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and its severity.Prospective, single-center, cross-sectional study.Sleep disorders unit of a community hospital.A total of 301 consecutive patients admitted to the sleep disorders unit due to suspicion of OSAS. Assessments included body mass index calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared (BMI); neck perimeter measurement; oropharyngeal examination; fiberendoscopy; rhinomanometry; and a sleep study.Apnea-hypopnoea index (AHI), FTP, the uvula size, and certain complementary examinations (sex, age, BMI, cervical perimeter, nasal flow) whose importance has not been clearly established, and to explore their potential value as predictors of the AHI.Findings included the following: the mean (SD) age of the patients was 51 (12) years; 71.1% were male; the mean (SD) BMI was 29.8 (4.6); and the mean (SD) cervical perimeter, 40.5 (3.7) cm. In 94.0% of the patients the AHI value was at least 5.0/hour. Patients with FTP scores of 2 and 3 accounted for 74.1% of the whole cohort: 14.3% had an FTP score of 1, and only 11.6% had a score of 4. Of the 6.0% of cases with a normal AHI, 16 patients were classified as having FTP scores of 1, and 2 as having a score of 2. Tonsil size score (P = .005), uvula score (P = .003), BMI (P < .001), cervical perimeter (P < .001), nasal flow at 150 Pa (P = .02), and age (P = .007) were related to OSAS severity. Curiously, AHI in patients who had undergone tonsillectomy was higher than in the TS1 group (tonsils inside the tonsillar fossa) and quite similar to the TS 2 group (tonsils that extend beyond the tonsillar pillars). In the multiple regression model, only the FTP score showed a relevant relationship to OSAS severity.First, since the FTP score is almost the only parameter related to OSAS severity, a simple oropharyngeal examination can provide key information on this issue. Second, tonsillectomy does not seem to protect against development of OSAS.