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Barcelona, Spain

Guinea J.,Complutense University of Madrid | Guinea J.,Institute Investigacion Sanitaria Del Hospital Gregorio Maranon | Guinea J.,CIBER ISCIII | Zaragoza O.,Institute Salud Carlos III | And 9 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

We report the molecular identifications and antifungal susceptibilities of the isolates causing fungemia collected in the CANDIPOP population-based study conducted in 29 Spanish hospitals. A total of 781 isolates (from 767 patients, 14 of them having mixed fungemia) were collected. The species found most frequently were Candida albicans (44.6%), Candida parapsilosis (24.5%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.6%), Candida krusei (1.9%), Candida guilliermondii (1.7%), and Candida lusitaniae (1.3%). Other Candida and non-Candida species accounted for approximately 5% of the isolates. The presence of cryptic species was low. Compared to findings of previous studies conducted in Spain, the frequency of C. glabrata has increased. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by using EUCAST and CLSI M27-A3 reference procedures; the two methods were comparable. The rate of fluconazole-susceptible isolates was 80%, which appears to be a decrease compared to findings of previous studies, explained mainly by the higher frequency of C. glabrata. Using the species-specific breakpoints and epidemiological cutoff values, the rate of voriconazole and posaconazole in vitro resistance was low (<2%). In the case of C. tropicalis, using the EUCAST procedure, the rate of azole resistance was around 20%. There was a correlation between the previous use of azoles and the presence of fluconazole-resistant isolates. Resistance to echinocandins was very rare (2%), and resistance to amphotericin B also was very uncommon. The sequencing of the hot spot (HS) regions from FKS1 or FKS2 genes in echi-nocandin-resistant isolates revealed previously described point mutations. The decrease in the susceptibility to fluconazole in Spanish isolates should be closely monitored in future studies. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

del Valle Mendoza J.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences | Pumarola T.,Servei de Microbiologia | Gonzales L.A.,National Major San Marcos University | del Valle L.J.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences | del Valle L.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine | Year: 2014

Objective: To investigate antiviral activity of maca to reduce viral load in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells infected with influenza type A and B viruses (Flu-A and Flu-B, respectively). Methods: Maca were extracted with methanol (1:2, v/v). The cell viability and toxicity of the extracts were evaluated on MDCK cells using method MTT assay. Antiviral activity of compounds against Flu-A and Flu-B viruses was assayed using a test for determining the inhibition of the cytopathic effect on cell culture and multiplex RT-PCR. Results: The methanol extract of maca showed low cytotoxicity and inhibited influenza-induced cytopathic effect significantly, while viral load was reduced via inhibition of viral growth in MDCK infected cells. Maca contains potent inhibitors of Flu-A and Flu-B with a selectivity index [cytotoxic concentration 50%/IC50] of 157.4 and 110.5, respectively. Conclusions: In vitro assays demonstrated that maca has antiviral activity not only against Flu-A (like most antiviral agents) but also Flu-B viruses, providing remarkable therapeutic benefits. © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Source

Rey-Jurado E.,University of Barcelona | Tudo G.,Servei de Microbiologia | De La Bellacasa J.P.,Servei de Microbiologia | Espasa M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gonzalez-Martin J.,University of Barcelona
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2013

Multidrug resistance has become a problem in the management of tuberculosis, leading to an urgent need for research related to new regimens including the currently available drugs. The objectives of this study were: (i) to study the effect of the following second-choice three-drug combinations against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and drug-susceptible clinical isolates (levofloxacin, linezolid and ethambutol; levofloxacin, amikacin and ethambutol; and levofloxacin, linezolid and amikacin); and (ii) to compare the effect of these combinations with an isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol combination against drug-susceptible clinical isolates. A total of 9 MDR clinical and 12 drug-susceptible isolates (11 clinical isolates and the H37Rv reference strain) were studied using an adaptation of the chequerboard assay. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated as follows: FICI = FIC A + FICB + FICC = A/MICA + B/MICB + C/MICC, where A, B and C are the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of each antibiotic in combination and MIC A, MICB and MICC are the individual MICs. The FICI was interpreted as synergism when the value was <0.75. The FICI of all the combinations ranged from 1.5 to 3, showing indifferent activity. No differences were found between MDR and drug-susceptible isolates, or between the second-choice combinations and the fourth combination against drug-susceptible isolates. In conclusion, the second-choice drugs are equally effective as the combination of isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. Source

Martins E.R.,University of Lisbon | Andreu A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Correia P.,University of Lisbon | Juncosa T.,Servei de Microbiologia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

We analyzed 212 group B streptococci (GBS) from newborns with invasive infections in the area of Barcelona, Spain, between 1992 and 2009, with the aim of documenting changes in the prevalences of serotypes, antimicrobial resistance, and genetic lineages and evaluating their associations with either early-onset disease (EOD) or late-onset disease (LOD). Serotypes III (n = 118) and Ia (n = 47) together accounted for nearly 78% of the isolates. All isolates carried an alpha or alpha-like protein gene, and specific associations between genes and serotypes, such as serotype Ib and bca, serotype II and bca, serotype III and rib, and serotype V and alp3, reflected the presence of particular genetic lineages. Macrolide resistance (14.2%) was significantly associated with serotype V. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) clustering was an excellent predictor of serotype and antibiotic resistance. The combination of PFGE and multilocus sequence typing revealed a large number of genetically distinct lineages. Still, specific lineages were dominant in our collection, particularly the serotype III/ST17/rib lineage, which had enhanced potential to cause LOD. Serotype Ia was concentrated in a single PFGE cluster composed of two genetic lineages: ST23/eps and ST24/bca. The ST24/bca sublineage of serotype Ia, which is found infrequently elsewhere, may be emerging as an important cause of neonatal invasive infections in the Mediterranean region. In spite of the introduction of prophylaxis, resulting in a pronounced decline in the frequency of EOD, the study revealed a remarkably stable clonal structure of GBS causing neonatal infections in Barcelona over a period of 18 years. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Polverino E.,Hospital Clinic | Dambrava P.,Hospital Clinic | Cilloniz C.,Hospital Clinic | Balasso V.,Servei de Malalties Infeccioses | And 5 more authors.
Thorax | Year: 2010

Background: Pneumonia among nursing home (NH) residents has increased considerably in recent years, but it remains unclear whether it should be considered as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or a new category of infection. Methods: 150 consecutive cases of NH-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) (from 1 February 1997 to 1 July 2007) were analysed. Results: Patients (median age, 82 years; range, 77-87 years) showed numerous co-morbidities, (neurological, 55%; pulmonary, 38%; cardiac, 35%) and severe disability for daily activities (partial, 32%; total, 31%). Cases of NHAP were mainly classified as mild to moderate according to the CRB-65 score (CRB-65 classes 0-1 and 2, 41% each). In-hospital and 30-day mortality were 8.7% and 20%, respectively. Aetiology was defined in 57 cases (38%). The most common isolates were Streptococcus pneumoniae (58%), Enterobacteriaceae (Gram-negative bacteria (GNB)) (9%), atypical bacteria (7%), respiratory viruses (5%), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (5%) and Legionella pneumophila (5%). The most frequent causes of treatment inadequacy were use of β-lactams alone (25%) and lack of aspiration assessment (15%). Prognostic factors of 1-month mortality were neurological comorbidities (OR 4.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 15.7; p=0.020), septic shock (OR 6.6; 95% CI 1.3 to 34.0; p=0.025), pleural effusion (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 11.7; p=0.036) and isolation of GNB or MRSA (OR 16.4; 95% CI 2.1 to 128.9; p=0.008). Conclusions: The patients show clinical characteristics (eg, age and co-morbidities) comparable with those with hospital-acquired pneumonia. However, microbiological and mortality data of patients with NHAP are more similar to the data of those with CAP. Isolation of GNB or MRSA was associated with increased mortality risk. CAP empirical antibiotic coverage is still indicated in NHAP, although specific risk factors for multidrug-resistant infections should be assessed on an individual basis. Source

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