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Brown M.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | McWeeney G.,World Health Organization | Kim R.,World Health Organization | Tahirukaj A.,World Health Organization | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2010

Background: This study assessed the association between lead poisoning prevention activities and blood lead levels (BLLs) among children living in lead-contaminated camps for internally displaced persons in the United Nations-Administered Province of Kosovo. Methods: We conducted a population-based study to examine the relationship among geometric mean BLLs in children (i) born before any lead poisoning prevention activities were instituted, (ii) born when specific interim interventions were instituted and (iii) born after relocation and medical therapy were available. The study population consisted of 145 of the 186 children born in the camps between December 1999 and July 2007. Results: Lower mean BLLs were found in children born following implementation of the interventions as compared with the children born before the interventions. However, this decrease in mean BLLs was attenuated in children born into families suspected of informal lead smelting. Conclusion: Despite lower BLLs following interventions, children living in these camps have BLLs that remain unacceptably high. Further efforts are urgently needed to control or eliminate lead exposure in this population. Continued blood lead monitoring of the population is also warranted. © 2009 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved. Source

Krstev S.,Serbian Institute of Occupational Health | Marinkovic J.,Public Health Association of Serbia | Marinkovic J.,University of Belgrade | Simic S.,Public Health Association of Serbia | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives Middle-and low-income countries rarely have national surveillance data on smoking in pregnancy. This nationwide population- representative survey investigated pre-and post-partum smoking and their predictors in Serbia. Methods Using stratified two-stage random cluster sampling, 2,721 women in 66 health care centres were interviewed at 3 and 6 months post-partum. Results 37.2% of women smoked at some point in pregnancy (average 8.8 cigarettes/per day). Smoking at pregnancy onset and during pregnancy was associated with smoking by others in the home and lower education and family socio-economic status. Almost a quarter of women (23.2%) who quit smoking during pregnancy did not relapse 6 months post-partum. Older women, primiparae, university students and white-collar workers were more likely to successfully quit smoking. More than a half of women were exposed to SHS in their homes (57.6%) and 84.6% allowed smoking in their homes. Conclusion Smoking during pregnancy in Serbia was two-to threefold higher than in the most affluent western countries. Target groups for action are women with lower education and socio-economic status, as well as health professionals and family members who smoke. © 2012 Swiss School of Public Health. Source

Popevic M.B.,University of Belgrade | Popevic M.B.,Serbian Institute of Physiology | Milovanovic A.,University of Belgrade | Nagorni-Obradovic L.,University of Belgrade | And 4 more authors.
Quality of Life Research | Year: 2016

Purpose: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can lead to severe health consequences. Drivers of motor vehicles with untreated or undiagnosed OSA have a greater risk of traffic accidents. Use of self-reported questionnaires is the first step in OSA diagnosis. The main aim of this study was to perform the translation and validation of Berlin Questionnaire in a sample of commercial drivers. Methods: After formal translation, validation was performed on a sample of commercial drivers and included evaluation of internal consistency, test–retest reliability, construct and criterion validity. Full-night attended polysomnography or cardiorespiratory polygraphy was used for OSA diagnosis. Results: One hundred male participants, 24–62 years old, were included. Berlin Questionnaire classified 35 % subjects as potential OSA patients. Polysomnography confirmed OSA in 58 % of the subjects. Berlin Questionnaire showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha 0.82—first category, 0.73–0.95—second category). Test–retest reliability (Cohen’s kappa 0.78) was adequate. Berlin score was significantly correlated with OSA category and apnea–hypopnea index (AHI). Sensitivity of Berlin Questionnaire was from 50.9 (AHI ≥ 5) to 75 % (AHI ≥ 30), while specificity ranged from 86 to 70.5 %. Conclusions: Berlin Questionnaire (Serbian version) showed good measurement properties, creating basis for further research of its usefulness as OSA screening tool in populations of interest. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Zrkovic M.,University of Belgrade | Ciri J.,University of Belgrade | Beleslin B.,University of Belgrade | Bulat P.,University of Belgrade | And 3 more authors.
Hormone and Metabolic Research | Year: 2011

The aim of the study was to evaluate thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration in a reference group and to compare it with the TSH in subjects with high probability of thyroid dysfunction. The study population consisted of 852 subjects. The reference group consisting of 316 subjects was obtained by the exclusion of the subjects having thyroid disease, taking thyroid influencing drugs, having increased thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, or having abnormal thyroid ultrasound. 42 high probability of thyroid dysfunction subjects were defined by the association of increased TPO antibody concentration, changed echogenicity, and changed echosonographic structure of thyroid parenchyma. In the reference group TSH reference range was 0.45mU/l (95% CI 0.390.56mU/l) to 3.43mU/l (95% CI 3.104.22mU/l). To distinguish reference and high probability of thyroid dysfunction group a TSH threshold was calculated. At a threshold value of 3.09mU/l (95% CI 2.933.38mU/l), specificity was 95% and sensitivity 38.1%. Using 2 different approaches to find upper limit of the TSH reference range we obtained similar results. Using reference group only a value of 3.43mU/l was obtained. Using both reference group and subjects with the high probability of thyroid dysfunction we obtained 95% CI for the upper reference limit between 2.93 and 3.38mU/l. Based on these premises, it could be argued that conservative estimate of the TSH upper reference range should be 3.4mU/l for both sexes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG. Source

Ainsbury E.A.,Public Health England | Bakhanova E.,Research Center for Radiation Medicine | Barquinero J.F.,Unitat dAntropologia Biologica | Brai M.,University of Palermo | And 30 more authors.
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2011

The current focus on networking and mutual assistance in the management of radiation accidents or incidents has demonstrated the importance of a joined-up approach in physical and biological dosimetry. To this end, the European Radiation Dosimetry Working Group 10 on 'Retrospective Dosimetry' has been set up by individuals from a wide range of disciplines across Europe. Here, established and emerging dosimetry methods are reviewed, which can be used immediately and retrospectively following external ionising radiation exposure. Endpoints and assays include dicentrics, translocations, premature chromosome condensation, micronuclei, somatic mutations, gene expression, electron paramagnetic resonance, thermoluminescence, optically stimulated luminescence, neutron activation, haematology, protein biomarkers and analytical dose reconstruction. Individual characteristics of these techniques, their limitations and potential for further development are reviewed, and their usefulness in specific exposure scenarios is discussed. Whilst no single technique fulfils the criteria of an ideal dosemeter, an integrated approach using multiple techniques tailored to the exposure scenario can cover most requirements. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. Source

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