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Mikic A.M.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350–1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl−1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide. © 2015 Mikić. Source


Malencic D.,University of Novi Sad | Cvejic J.,University of Novi Sad | Miladinovic J.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2012

The antioxidant activity and contents of various polyphenol classes in the seeds of seven soybean varieties of different seed color and one yellow seed cultivar, representing a reference genotype, were evaluated. Total polyphenols and tannins were determined after extraction of plant material with 70% aqueous acetone, and total flavonoids were extracted with methanol and acetic acid, whereas anthocyanins were extracted with 20% aqueous ethanol. In addition, isoflavone content and composition were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Antioxidant activity of seed extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity assay. A positive linear correlation between antioxidant activity and contents of total polyphenols and anthocyanins was established. The highest antioxidant activity was observed in the extracts of black and brown varieties, which also showed high levels of all polyphenol classes examined. Yellow seed had the highest total isoflavone content (3.62 mg/g of dry material). The highest concentration of total daidzein was determined in black seeds (>2.0 mg/g of dry material), and the highest total glycitein and genistein contents occurred in the yellow cultivar (0.53 and 1.49 mg/g of dry material, respectively). According to our results, varieties of black and brown seeds could be of special interest not only for their large content of total polyphenols, ranging from 4.94 to 6.22 mg of gallic acid equivalents/g of dry material, but also for their high content of natural antioxidants such as anthocyanins. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Mikic A.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2015

‘Greek hay’, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.), is a legume species native to the eastern Mediterranean. It is cultivated mostly for its grain used in traditional dishes, such as curry, and as medicaments in local traditional medicines. The genetic resources of fenugreek are endangered. The most common methods in developing advanced cultivars of fenugreek are recurrent or family selection. The local landraces of fenugreek have a potential for up to 20 t ha-1 of fresh forage and more than 1100 kg ha-1 of grain and may have tolerance to various forms of biotic stresses. Despite the fact that fenugreek originated in the Mediterranean basin, extraordinarily rich sources of wild populations and local landraces, this crop is neglected, underutilized and almost completely forgotten. The main goal of this short communication is to preserve this crop in the Mediterranean and adjacent regions and its reintroduction in local agricultures. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. Source


Mikic A.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2016

Vetches (Vicia spp.) were part of the everyday diet of the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. Among the major criteria to determine the domestication in vetches and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed coat. The seeds of bitter vetch [V. ervilia (L.) Willd.] were found among both the earliest findings of wild collected plants from Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic, from 12th millennium BC cal and the storages of domesticated crops of the Near East Neolithic. Vetches entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Archaeological findings offer nice examples that confirm the importance vetches had in the primeval agriculture in Europe and its adjacent regions. Apart from the samples of cultivated vetches used either for food or feed or both, there is rich archaobotanical evidence on the wild and weedy vetch species in diverse European ecosystems. Recently the first known success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The future research on this subject certainly must make a more detailed map of the paths of the vetch distribution over Europe and, especially, its long-term and essentially important ties with their domestication and distribution in Asia Minor, Near East and North Africa. The initiated research on the vetch ancient DNA should bring more light onto the individual steps of the earliest days of vetch crops. The preliminary historical linguistic analysis assessed two Proto-Indo-European roots associated with vetches, *erəgw(h)— denoting pea, and *weik— meaning toavoid, initially gave the Latin vincīre, meaning tobind, and then vicia, denoting vetches in general. This multidisciplinary approach will hopefully be a useful reminder how widespread and important vetches used to be, as well as a tool for their re-introduction as presently neglected crops into the contemporary European agriculture. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Brycht M.,University of Lodz | Skrzypek S.,University of Lodz | Guzsvany V.,University of Novi Sad | Berenji J.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Talanta | Year: 2013

A new square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SWAdSV) method was developed for the determination of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin (Clo), based on its reduction at a renewable silver amalgam film electrode (Hg(Ag)FE). The key point of the procedure is the pretreatment of the Hg(Ag)FE by applying the appropriate conditioning potential (-1.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode). Under the optimized voltammetric conditions, such pretreatment resulted in the peak for the Clo reduction in Britton-Robinson buffer pH 9.0 at about -0.60 V, which was used for the analytical purpose. The developed SWAdSV procedure made it possible to determine Clo in the concentration range of 6.0×10-7-7.0×10-6 mol L-1 (LOD=1.8×10-7 mol L-1, LOQ=6.0×10-7 mol L-1) and 7.0×10 -6-4.0×10-5 mol L-1 (LOD=1. 3×10-6 mol L-1, LOQ=4.2×10-6 mol L-1). The repeatability, precision, and the recovery of the method were determined. The effect of common interfering pesticides was also investigated. Standard addition method was successfully applied and validated for the determination of Clo in spiked Warta River water, corn seeds samples, and in corn seeds samples treated with the commercial formulation PONCHO 600 FS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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