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Neumann K.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research | Kobiljski B.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Dencic S.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Varshney R.K.,Indian International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics | Borner A.,Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2011

Association-based trait mapping is an innovative methodology based on linkage disequilibrium. Studies in plants, especially in cereals, are rare. A genome-wide association study of wheat is reported, in which a large number of diversity array technology markers was used to genotype a winter wheat core collection of 96 accessions. The germplasm was structured into two sub-populations. Twenty agronomic traits were measured in field trials conducted over up to eight growing seasons. Association analysis was performed with two different approaches, the general linear model incorporating the Q-matrix only and the mixed linear model including also the kinship-matrix. In total, 385 marker-trait associations significant in both models were detected. The intrachromosomal location of many of these coincided with those of known major genes or quantitative trait loci, but others were detected in regions where no known genes have been located to date. These latter presumptive loci provide opportunities for further wheat improvement, based on a marker approach. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


News Article | November 22, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

- Higher yields seen across trials in three separate countries - BVT system produced up to 46% more yield per acre - Statistically significant reductions in disease severity seen in North Dakota State University trials - Sunflower seeds from BVT system had higher bulk density, an important quality parameter MISSISSAUGA, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Nov. 22, 2016) - Bee Vectoring Technologies (the "Company" or "BVT") (TSX VENTURE:BEE) announced successful results from sunflower trials conducted in three countries: USA, Serbia and Canada. The field trials were designed to evaluate the ability of the BVT system to manage sclerotinia head rot, an invasive fungal disease that causes high levels of loss in sunflowers. Growers have very limited choices in battling this disease since chemical sprays are not economically viable. To assess the efficacy of the system, several plots were inoculated with the disease and plots where the BVT system was deployed were compared against plots that were left untreated. Additional measurements on the yield of the crop and quality attributes were also made where possible in the trials. In replicated trials conducted at North Dakota State University using bumblebees, the BVT system delivered a 36% reduction in incidence and a 22% reduction in the severity of the disease on average across three different observations. These reductions in disease incidence and severity were statistically significant. The BVT system produced a yield increase in the crop of 8%. In replicated trials conducted in Serbia in collaboration with the Arthur Dobbs Institute and the Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops and its commercial arm "NS seme", the BVT system delivered a 43% increase in disease-free flowers, a 25% yield increase and a 5% higher bulk density which is an important quality attribute of the sunflower seed. In addition, a trial conducted on a sunflower crop in Ontario, Canada resulted in a 46% increase in yield. BVT CEO, Ashish Malik said, "These are excellent results, and clearly demonstrate the significant opportunity we have to help sunflower growers around the world manage sclerotinia, a devastating disease they have been battling unsuccessfully for many years. There are 1.6 million acres of sunflowers planted in the US alone, and over fifty million acres planted worldwide so this crop represents a significant commercial opportunity for us." Malik added, "We learnt a lot from the trials carried out in 2016. Our system can not only help manage this devastating disease, but is being shown to deliver significant increases to yields as well as improving the overall quality of a crop. With the growing body of positive, verified results using our system on sunflowers, we anticipate a significant ramp up of our development activities in this area during 2017. We will be meeting with growers and important stakeholders in North Dakota in December to plan the next steps." BVT has developed and owns patent-pending bee vectoring technology (consisting of a proprietary tray dispenser containing a unique carrier agent) that is designed to harmlessly utilize commercially reared bumblebees as natural delivery mechanisms for a variety of powdered mixtures comprised of organic compounds that inhibit or eliminate common crop diseases, while at the same time stimulating and enhancing the same crops. This unique and proprietary process facilitates a targeted delivery of crop controls using the simple process of bee pollination to replace traditional crop spraying, resulting in better yield, organic product and less impact on the environment without the use of water or disruptions to labour. Additional information can be viewed at the Company's website www.beevt.com Neither TSX Venture Exchange nor its Regulation Services Provider (as that term is defined in the policies of the TSX Venture Exchange) accepts responsibility for the adequacy or accuracy of this release. This press release contains certain "forward-looking statements" that involve known and unknown risks and uncertainties. All statements in this press release, other than statements of historical fact, that address events or developments that BVT expects to occur, are forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements in this press release include, but are not limited to, statements with respect to BVT'S future plans and technologies, including the timing of such plans and technologies. Forward-looking statements are statements that are not historical facts and are generally, but not always, identified by the words "expects", "plans", "anticipates", "believes", "intends", "estimates", "projects", "potential", "indicate" and similar expressions, or that events or conditions "will", "would", "may", "could" or "should" occur. Although BVT believes that the expectations expressed in such forward-looking statements are based on reasonable assumptions, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results may differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. Factors that could cause the actual results to differ materially from those in forward-looking statements include continued availability of capital, financing and required resources (such as human resources, equipment and/or other capital resources), and general economic, market or business conditions. Investors are cautioned that any such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those projected in the forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements are based on the beliefs, estimates and opinions of BVT'S management on the date the statements are made. BVT undertakes no obligation to update these forward-looking statements in the event that management's beliefs, estimates or opinions, or other factors, should change, except as required by law.


Mikic A.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2015

‘Greek hay’, fenugreek (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.), is a legume species native to the eastern Mediterranean. It is cultivated mostly for its grain used in traditional dishes, such as curry, and as medicaments in local traditional medicines. The genetic resources of fenugreek are endangered. The most common methods in developing advanced cultivars of fenugreek are recurrent or family selection. The local landraces of fenugreek have a potential for up to 20 t ha-1 of fresh forage and more than 1100 kg ha-1 of grain and may have tolerance to various forms of biotic stresses. Despite the fact that fenugreek originated in the Mediterranean basin, extraordinarily rich sources of wild populations and local landraces, this crop is neglected, underutilized and almost completely forgotten. The main goal of this short communication is to preserve this crop in the Mediterranean and adjacent regions and its reintroduction in local agricultures. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015.


Mikic A.M.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2015

Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350–1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl−1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide. © 2015 Mikić.


Mikic A.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution | Year: 2016

Vetches (Vicia spp.) were part of the everyday diet of the modern human Palaeolithic hunter-gatherers at the end of the last Ice Age. Among the major criteria to determine the domestication in vetches and other ancient grain legumes are non-dehiscent pods, larger seed size and smooth seed coat. The seeds of bitter vetch [V. ervilia (L.) Willd.] were found among both the earliest findings of wild collected plants from Early Pre-Pottery Neolithic, from 12th millennium BC cal and the storages of domesticated crops of the Near East Neolithic. Vetches entered Europe in its south-east regions and progressed into its interior via Danube. Archaeological findings offer nice examples that confirm the importance vetches had in the primeval agriculture in Europe and its adjacent regions. Apart from the samples of cultivated vetches used either for food or feed or both, there is rich archaobotanical evidence on the wild and weedy vetch species in diverse European ecosystems. Recently the first known success has been obtained in the extraction of ancient DNA from charred bitter vetch seeds. The future research on this subject certainly must make a more detailed map of the paths of the vetch distribution over Europe and, especially, its long-term and essentially important ties with their domestication and distribution in Asia Minor, Near East and North Africa. The initiated research on the vetch ancient DNA should bring more light onto the individual steps of the earliest days of vetch crops. The preliminary historical linguistic analysis assessed two Proto-Indo-European roots associated with vetches, *erəgw(h)— denoting pea, and *weik— meaning toavoid, initially gave the Latin vincīre, meaning tobind, and then vicia, denoting vetches in general. This multidisciplinary approach will hopefully be a useful reminder how widespread and important vetches used to be, as well as a tool for their re-introduction as presently neglected crops into the contemporary European agriculture. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Dencic S.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Mladenov N.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Kobiljski B.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2011

Background: It has long been recognized that bread making quality traits vary considerably as a result of genotype, environment and their interaction. The present study was aimed at determining the effect of cultivar, environment and their interaction on several bread making quality traits as well as to analyze relationship between these traits, Methods: Hundred forty wheat genotypes originated from 28 countries were grown in 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003. Data of 9 bread making quality traits, protein content (PC), wet gluten content (WG), farinograph absorption (FA), farinograph dough development time (FD), farinograph quality number (FQU), resistance to extension (ER), falling number (FN), loaf volume (LV), and baking score (BS), were used to evaluate the effects of cultivar, environment and their interaction. The analysis of variance, ANOVA, and estimates of the components of variance due to genotype and genotype/environment interaction were calculated according to Comstock and Moll (1963). Heritability estimates were similar to those reported by Singh et al. (1993), Results: Both cultivar and cultivar by environment interaction had significant effects on all quality traits. Variances of quality traits associated with genetic factors (cultivar) were generally larger than those for cultivar by environmental interaction effects, Conclusion: The dominant effect of the cultivar in total variance is probably due to the wide range of bread making quality traits in the examined cultivar set.


Brycht M.,University of Lodz | Skrzypek S.,University of Lodz | Guzsvany V.,University of Novi Sad | Berenji J.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops
Talanta | Year: 2013

A new square-wave adsorptive stripping voltammetric (SWAdSV) method was developed for the determination of the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin (Clo), based on its reduction at a renewable silver amalgam film electrode (Hg(Ag)FE). The key point of the procedure is the pretreatment of the Hg(Ag)FE by applying the appropriate conditioning potential (-1.70 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode). Under the optimized voltammetric conditions, such pretreatment resulted in the peak for the Clo reduction in Britton-Robinson buffer pH 9.0 at about -0.60 V, which was used for the analytical purpose. The developed SWAdSV procedure made it possible to determine Clo in the concentration range of 6.0×10-7-7.0×10-6 mol L-1 (LOD=1.8×10-7 mol L-1, LOQ=6.0×10-7 mol L-1) and 7.0×10 -6-4.0×10-5 mol L-1 (LOD=1. 3×10-6 mol L-1, LOQ=4.2×10-6 mol L-1). The repeatability, precision, and the recovery of the method were determined. The effect of common interfering pesticides was also investigated. Standard addition method was successfully applied and validated for the determination of Clo in spiked Warta River water, corn seeds samples, and in corn seeds samples treated with the commercial formulation PONCHO 600 FS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


The mustard crop (Brassica spp. and Sinapis spp.) originated in the Mediterranean and is considered one of the first cultivated crops in Near East at the beginning of the Neolithic ‘agricultural revolution’. Despite high oil content in its seed that prevents it from preserving for long, there is a rich archaeobotanical evidence of its presence in both wild and the very first agricultural floras of Near East. The historical linguistic analysis suggests that the people who domesticated mustard belonged to the Afroasiatic ethnolinguistic family comprising modern Semitic peoples. The earliest Christian and Islamic texts, such as gospels and Qur’an and both having roots in the Semitic/Hebrew religious traditions, make references to the mustard crop primarily as a religious symbol, most notably in the parable of the mustard seed in the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke. Here, a mustard plant, with all its remarkable morphological aspects, may equally be viewed as a human body fulfilled with faith and as a crop with a substantial inner potential, such as high seed oil content and high protein content in biomass and seed. In other words, the image of the mustard plant is an archetype of all its potentials as a multi-purposed crop. This short communication shows that the religious symbolism may cast more light onto the earliest days and history of the cultivated plants, such as mustard. By demonstrating the existence of a peculiar space–time continuum from the beginnings of agriculture to the beginning of common era, it may also offer indirect but detailed and convincible evidence on their significance for the human population of Fertile Crescent in a joint and balanced effort with palaeobotany, archaeology, palaeogenetics and historical linguistics. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Filip S.,University of Novi Sad | Vidovic S.,University of Novi Sad | Adamovic D.,Serbian Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops | Zekovic Z.,University of Novi Sad
Journal of Supercritical Fluids | Year: 2014

Fractionation by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used to obtain various extracts from Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil). The extractions were done at temperature of 40 C and 50 C, and at different pressure, which was increased successively from 100 bar (150 bar, 200 bar) to 300 bar. The identification and quantification of the extract compounds was done using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID) analyses. The yield of basil SFE extracts varies from 0.138 to 1.008% (w/w). The major components identified in the extracts were linalool, eugenol, α-bergamotene, germacrene D, γ-cadinene, δ-cadinene, β-selinene and spathulenol. The highest extraction yield, in fractionation process, of linalool (167.03 mg per 100 g of basil) was achieved at pressure of 100 bar and temperature 50 C (solvent density 0.378 kg/m3). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


This preliminary research was aimed at finding the roots in various Eurasian proto-languages directly related to pulses and giving the words denoting the same in modern European languages. Six Proto-Indo-European roots were indentified, namely arnk(')- ('a leguminous plant'), *bhabh- ('field bean'), *eregw[h] ('a kernel of leguminous plant', 'pea'), ghArs- ('a leguminous plant'), *kek- ('pea') and *lent- ('lentil'). No Proto-Uralic root was attested save hypothetically *kača ('pea'), while there were two Proto-Altaic roots, *bǔkrV ('pea') and *ziǎbsa ('lentil'). The Proto-Caucasianx root *qir'ā denoted pea, while another one, *hōwł(ā) ('bean', 'lentil') and the Proto-Basque root *iłha-r ('pea', 'bean', 'vetch') could have a common Proto-Sino-Caucasian ancestor, *hVwłV ('bean') within the hypothetic Dené-Caucasian language superfamily. The Modern Maltese preserved the memory of two Proto-Semitic roots, *'adaš- ('lentil') and *pūl- ('field bean'). The presented results prove that the most ancient Eurasian pulse crops were well-known and extensively cultivated by the ancestors of all modern European nations. The attested lexicological continuum witnesses the existence of a millennia-long links between the peoples of Eurasia to their mutual benefit. This research is meant to encourage interdisciplinary concerted actions between plant scientists dealing with crop evolution and biodiversity, archaeobotanists and language historians. © 2012 Aleksandar Mikić.

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