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Smederevska Palanka, Serbia

Milosevic M.,Ministry of Agriculture | Vujakovic M.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Karagic D.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops
Genetika | Year: 2010

Seed marks the beginning of each plant production and therefore ensuring its quality is the priority of modern seed science and a prerequisite for obtaining high yields of all plant species. Determination of seed quality and its viability indicates what seed lots can be placed onto the market, and for that reason it is very important to have reliable methods and tests to be used for seed quality and seed vigour testing. The term vigour of viability is used to describe the physiological characteristics of seeds that control its ability to germinate rapidly in the soil and to tolerate various, mostly negative environmental factors. MCDONALD grouped vigour tests into three groups: Physical tests - determine seed characteristics such as size and mass. These tests are inexpensive, quick, can be applied to large number of samples, and are positively correlated with seed vigour. The main feature of seed development is accumulation of nutritive materials, which is also in direct correlation with vigour, i.e. with size and mass of seed; Physiological tests - using germination and growth parameters. There are two types of these tests. First type, when germination is done under favourable conditions (standard laboratory germination, and test of growth intensity). Second type, when seed is exposed to unfavourable environmental conditions (cold test, accelerated aging test, and Hiltner test); Biochemical tests - are considered as indirect methods for estimation of seed value. These are Tetrazolijum test, conductometric measurements, enzyme activity and respiration.

Zdravkovic J.M.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Acamovic-Djokovic G.S.,University of Kragujevac | Mladenovic J.D.,University of Kragujevac | Pavlovic R.M.,University of Kragujevac | Zdravkovic M.S.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops
Hemijska Industrija | Year: 2014

The antioxidant activity of three lettuce varieties (Lactuca sativa L.) Emerald, Vera and Neva, cultivated in two kinds of protected spaces, a glasshouse and a plastic greenhouse, under controlled conditions, was determined. The content of antioxidant compounds: total phenols, flavonoids, L-ascorbic acid, β-carotene and lycopene, were determined in etha- nolic extracts of the lettuce with spectrophotometric methods. The largest content of total phenols (78.98±0.67 mg GAE/g of dry extract) was found in ethanolic extract of the lettuce variety Neva cultivated in a plastic greenhouse, whereas the largest content of flavonoids (35.45±0.95 mg RU/g of dry extract) was displayed in the lettuce Emerald cultivated in a glasshouse. It was observed that the lettuce cultivated in the glasshouse contained a somewhat higher content of L-ascorbic acid than the lettuce same variety from plastic greenhouse. The content of lycopene in the examined lettuce is negligible, and the content of β-carotene is low. On the other hand, the high content of phenolic components causes favourable antioxidant properties found in all varieties of examined lettuce.

Dordevic R.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Zecevic B.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Zdravkovic J.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Todorovic G.,Serbian Institute for Medicinal Plant Research Dr Josif Pancic
Genetika | Year: 2010

The aim of the present study was to estimate, on the basis of diallel crossing, superior-parent heterosis, components of genetic variability and trait heritability for three yield components in tomato, and to perform the VrWr regression analysis. Six different tomato inbred lines originating from local and introduced breeding material were selected for the study. The hybrids expressed greater mean values for the majority of the traits than the inbred lines. The value of additive component of variance (D) was higher than the value of the dominant variance (H 1 and H 2) for the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight, while the value of the dominant component of variance was higher for the fruit weight per plant. Positive values of additive x dominant genetic effect interaction (F) for the observed traits point to a greater participation of dominant alleles in the inheritance of these traits, which was confirmed by the coefficients H 2/4H 1 (0.208-0.228) and by the ratio KD/KR being greater than unity (1.129-1.536). The values of the average degree of dominance √H 1/D, lower than unity for the number of fruits per plant and the average fruit weight, indicate that these traits were inherited by partial dominance. Furthermore, values of the degree of dominance greater than unity for the fruit weight indicate that this trait was inherited by dominance or superdominance. These conclusions were also confirmed by high values of the broad- and narrow-sense heritability that varied from 98.88% to 99.44%, i.e., from 45.06 to 87.51%, respectively, as well as, by the VrWr regression for the observed traits in the F 1 generation.

Zdravkovic J.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Pavlovic N.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Girek Z.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Brdar-Jokanovic M.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Tomato yield depends on two components viz., fruit weight and number of fruit per flower branch. These traits are quantitative andtherefore influenced by multiple genes. The objective of this study was to estimate the main gene effects (additive, dominant and digenicepistasis) and to determine the mode of inheritance for yield components and yield in three tomato cross combinations by generation meananalysis. The trial included genotypes differing in morphology and yield: line DAT, cultivar SP-109 and local population KGZ. The analyzedgenotypes belong to tomato germplasm collection of the Institute for Vegetable Crops, Smederevska Palanka, Serbia. Six families per hybrid,including parents, have been tested. Besides, the additive and dominance gene effects, non-allelic gene interactions have been detected for yieldcomponents and yield. Duplicate type of epistasis was confirmed for fruit weight and yield in all cases characterized by significant dominanceand dominance/dominance effects, which diminishes the effect of dominant genes and makes breeding for yield increase more difficult.Therefore, number of fruits per flower branch increase would be the most efficient strategy for increasing tomato yielding ability.

Djordjevic M.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Djordjevic O.,University of Belgrade | Djordjevic R.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | Mijatovic M.,Serbian Institute for Vegetable Crops | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013

Essential oils of Mentha piperita, Eucaliptus globulus, Pinus sylvestris, Rosmarinus officinalis, Pimpinella anisum and Origanum vulgare were studied for antifungal effect of their volatile phase toward tomato pathogen (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) In vitro. Antifungal effect of oils was expressed through calculating percentage of inhibition of radial growth of mycelia of pathogen, and by determining MIC (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) and MFC (Minimum Fungicidal Concentration). Results indicated that all of examined oils expressed antifungal activity in different concentrations. Essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) was the most efficient in inhibition of mycelial growth with total inhibition applied at lowest concentration of 0.04 μl/ml of air. MIC and MFC for this oil were also found at 0.04 μl/ml of air. Oils of anise (Pimpinella anisum) and menthe (Mentha piperita) were also very effective. Anise oil had totally inhibited mycelium applied at 0.1 μl/ml of air. MIC value was 0.3 μl/ml of air, while MFC was higher than maximal applied concentration (>0.6 μl/ml of air). Menthe oil had total inhibition of mycelial growth applied at 0.3 μl/ml of air and the MIC value was at the same point. MFC was higher than maximal applied concentration (>0.6 μl/ml of air). Other essential oils expressed high inhibition rate but it wasn't 100%. The results of this research indicate that essential oil of oregano followed by oils of menthe and anise has potential to suppress the mycelial growth Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, In vitro. Further research should provide answers for final goal - applying essential oils In vivo.

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