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Marcelino I.,CIRAD | Lefrancois T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Martinez D.,CIRAD | Giraud-Girard K.,CIRAD | And 5 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2015

The use of cheap and thermoresistant vaccines in poor tropical countries for the control of animal diseases is a key issue. Our work aimed at designing and validating a process for the large-scale production of a ready-to-use inactivated vaccine for ruminants. Our model was heartwater caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER). The conventional inactivated vaccine against heartwater (based on whole bacteria inactivated with sodium azide) is prepared immediately before injection, using a syringe-extrusion method with Montanide ISA50. This is a fastidious time-consuming process and it limits the number of vaccine doses available. To overcome these issues, we tested three different techniques (syringe, vortex and homogenizer) and three Montanide ISA adjuvants (50, 70 and 70M). High-speed homogenizer was the optimal method to emulsify ER antigens with both ISA70 and 70M adjuvants. The emulsions displayed a good homogeneity (particle size below 1. μm and low phase separation), conductivity below 10. μS/cm and low antigen degradation at 4. °C for up to 1 year. The efficacy of the different formulations was then evaluated during vaccination trials on goats. The inactivated ER antigens emulsified with ISA70 and ISA70M in a homogenizer resulted in 80% and 100% survival rates, respectively. A cold-chain rupture assay using ISA70M+ER was performed to mimic possible field conditions exposing the vaccine at 37. °C for 4 days before delivery. Surprisingly, the animal survival rate was still high (80%). We also observed that the MAP-1B antibody response was very similar between animals vaccinated with ISA70+ER and ISA70M+ER emulsions, suggesting a more homogenous antigen distribution and presentation in these emulsions. Our work demonstrated that the combination of ISA70 or ISA70M and homogenizer is optimal for the production of an effective ready-to-use inactivated vaccine against heartwater, which could easily be produced on an industrial scale. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | SEPPIC, CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development, CIRAD and French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Vaccine | Year: 2015

The use of cheap and thermoresistant vaccines in poor tropical countries for the control of animal diseases is a key issue. Our work aimed at designing and validating a process for the large-scale production of a ready-to-use inactivated vaccine for ruminants. Our model was heartwater caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER). The conventional inactivated vaccine against heartwater (based on whole bacteria inactivated with sodium azide) is prepared immediately before injection, using a syringe-extrusion method with Montanide ISA50. This is a fastidious time-consuming process and it limits the number of vaccine doses available. To overcome these issues, we tested three different techniques (syringe, vortex and homogenizer) and three Montanide ISA adjuvants (50, 70 and 70M). High-speed homogenizer was the optimal method to emulsify ER antigens with both ISA70 and 70M adjuvants. The emulsions displayed a good homogeneity (particle size below 1 m and low phase separation), conductivity below 10 S/cm and low antigen degradation at 4 C for up to 1 year. The efficacy of the different formulations was then evaluated during vaccination trials on goats. The inactivated ER antigens emulsified with ISA70 and ISA70M in a homogenizer resulted in 80% and 100% survival rates, respectively. A cold-chain rupture assay using ISA70M+ER was performed to mimic possible field conditions exposing the vaccine at 37 C for 4 days before delivery. Surprisingly, the animal survival rate was still high (80%). We also observed that the MAP-1B antibody response was very similar between animals vaccinated with ISA70+ER and ISA70M+ER emulsions, suggesting a more homogenous antigen distribution and presentation in these emulsions. Our work demonstrated that the combination of ISA70 or ISA70M and homogenizer is optimal for the production of an effective ready-to-use inactivated vaccine against heartwater, which could easily be produced on an industrial scale.


News Article | November 25, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

The global mineral salt ingredients market is estimated to register a promising CAGR of 5.1% over the forecast period, owing to numerous factors, about which Persistence Market Research offers thorough insights and forecasts in this report. Minerals salt ingredients normally occur in the form of chemical compounds and most often they are crystalline and abiogenic in origin. Every person uses products made from minerals in day-to-day life. The mines and sea water are the major sources of mineral salt ingredients although plants, dairy products, meat, fruits, flowers, grains, and oil are also considered important sources of organic mineral salt ingredients. Mineral salt ingredients are most widely used in industries such as agriculture, food and beverages, and pharmaceuticals. The factors fuelling demand for the global mineral salt ingredients market are deficiency of mineral salt ingredients leading to multiple health problems, increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, presence of a large chunk of population over 65 years, increasing demand for mineral salts in the cosmetics and personal care industry, rising demand from the food and beverages industry, and increase in awareness about a nutrient and mineral salt ingredients rich diet. Mineral salt ingredients possess various medical properties and work as an anti-aging formula and this is likely to further fuel revenue growth of the global mineral salt ingredients market. Increasing urbanization, changing lifestyles of people, and rapid advancements in product offerings are other factors likely to boost the growth of the global mineral salt ingredients market during the forecast period. The global mineral salt ingredients market is segmented by product type into Micro Mineral salt ingredients and Macro Mineral salt ingredients (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium); by application into Dairy products, Infant formula, Functional food, Cosmetics and personal care, Pharmaceuticals, Agriculture, and Others; and by Region into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Middle East & Africa (MEA). Among the product type segments, the Macro Mineral salt ingredients segment is expected to exhibit the highest revenue growth, followed by the Micro Mineral salt ingredients segment over the forecast period. The Macro Mineral salt ingredients segment is expected to register a significant CAGR of 5.1% during the forecast period in terms of value. The Micro Mineral salt ingredients segment is projected to grow at a significant CAGR of 5.2% over the forecast period in terms of value. Among the application segments, the Functional food segment is expected to register a CAGR of 7.8% over the forecast period. Among regions, the Asia Pacific (APAC) market has been estimated to dominate the global mineral salt ingredients market, accounting for a maximum revenue share of the market by 2016 end. Europe is expected to account for over 25.3% revenue share of the global mineral salt ingredients market by 2016 end. Among the emerging markets, Latin America is estimated to exhibit a significant CAGR of 4.7% over the forecast period, followed by the North America market, due to an emerging trend of the adoption of functional foods as a rich source of mineral salt ingredients. For More Information Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/mineral-salt-ingredients-market/toc The global mineral salt ingredients market report profiles some of the leading companies operating in this market. Corbion, Minerals Technologies Inc., Compass Minerals International Inc., Albion Laboratories, Inc., Dr. Paul Lohmann GmbH KG, K+S AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, Gadot Biochemical Industries Ltd., Arla Foods amba, DuPont, Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG, SEPPIC, and Koninklijke DSM N.V. are some of the companies featured in the report. Leading market players are focusing on new market expansion through strategic mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures and are making significant investments in research and development activities to launch new products and cement their foothold in the global mineral salt ingredients market.


Persistence Market Research delivers key insights on the global mineral salt ingredients market in a newly published report titled "Global Market Study on Mineral Salt Ingredients: Macro Mineral Salt Ingredients Segment Expected to Exhibit the Highest Revenue Growth." In terms of revenue, the global mineral salt ingredients market is estimated to register a promising CAGR of 5.1% over the forecast period, owing to numerous factors, about which Persistence Market Research offers thorough insights and forecasts in this report. The factors fuelling demand for the global mineral salt ingredients market are deficiency of mineral salt ingredients leading to multiple health problems, increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, presence of a large chunk of population over 65 years, increasing demand for mineral salts in the cosmetics and personal care industry, rising demand from the food and beverages industry, and increase in awareness about a nutrient and mineral salt ingredients rich diet. Mineral salt ingredients possess various medical properties and work as an anti-aging formula and this is likely to further fuel revenue growth of the global mineral salt ingredients market. Increasing urbanization, changing lifestyles of people, and rapid advancements in product offerings are other factors likely to boost the growth of the global mineral salt ingredients market during the forecast period. View and Download Report Table of Contents, Figures, and Tables: http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/mineral-salt-ingredients-market/toc The global mineral salt ingredients market is segmented by product type into Micro Mineral salt ingredients and Macro Mineral salt ingredients (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium); by application into Dairy products, Infant formula, Functional food, Cosmetics and personal care, Pharmaceuticals, Agriculture, and Others; and by Region into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Middle East & Africa (MEA). Among the product type segments, the Macro Mineral salt ingredients segment is expected to exhibit the highest revenue growth, followed by the Micro Mineral salt ingredients segment over the forecast period. The Macro Mineral salt ingredients segment is expected to register a significant CAGR of 5.1% during the forecast period in terms of value. The Micro Mineral salt ingredients segment is projected to grow at a significant CAGR of 5.2% over the forecast period in terms of value. Among the application segments, the Functional food segment is expected to register a CAGR of 7.8% over the forecast period. Among regions, the Asia Pacific (APAC) market has been estimated to dominate the global mineral salt ingredients market, accounting for a maximum revenue share of the market by 2016 end. Europe is expected to account for over 25.3% revenue share of the global mineral salt ingredients market by 2016 end. Among the emerging markets, Latin America is estimated to exhibit a significant CAGR of 4.7% over the forecast period, followed by the North America market, due to an emerging trend of the adoption of functional foods as a rich source of mineral salt ingredients. Competitive landscape: The global mineral salt ingredients market report profiles some of the leading companies operating in this market. Corbion, Minerals Technologies Inc., Compass Minerals International Inc., Albion Laboratories, Inc., Dr. Paul Lohmann GmbH KG, K+S AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, Gadot Biochemical Industries Ltd., Arla Foods amba, DuPont, Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG, SEPPIC, and Koninklijke DSM N.V. are some of the companies featured in the report. Persistence Market Research (PMR) is a third-platform research firm. Our research model is a unique collaboration of data analytics and market research methodology to help businesses achieve optimal performance. To support companies in overcoming complex business challenges, we follow a multi-disciplinary approach. At PMR, we unite various data streams from multi-dimensional sources. By deploying real-time data collection, big data, and customer experience analytics, we deliver business intelligence for organizations of all sizes.


News Article | November 18, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Minerals salt ingredients normally occur in the form of chemical compounds and most often they are crystalline and abiogenic in origin. Every person uses products made from minerals in day-to-day life. The mines and sea water are the major sources of mineral salt ingredients although plants, dairy products, meat, fruits, flowers, grains, and oil are also considered important sources of organic mineral salt ingredients. Mineral salt ingredients are most widely used in industries such as agriculture, food and beverages, and pharmaceuticals. For More Information Request TOC (desk of content material), Figures and Tables of the report @ http://www.persistencemarketresearch.com/market-research/mineral-salt-ingredients-market/toc Persistence Market Research delivers key insights on the global mineral salt ingredients market in a newly published report titled “Mineral Salt Ingredients Market: Global Industry Analysis and Forecast, 2016 - 2024.” In terms of revenue, the global mineral salt ingredients market is estimated to register a promising CAGR of 5.1% over the forecast period, owing to numerous factors, about which Persistence Market Research offers thorough insights and forecasts in this report. The factors fuelling demand for the global mineral salt ingredients market are deficiency of mineral salt ingredients leading to multiple health problems, increasing prevalence of chronic diseases, presence of a large chunk of population over 65 years, increasing demand for mineral salts in the cosmetics and personal care industry, rising demand from the food and beverages industry, and increase in awareness about a nutrient and mineral salt ingredients rich diet. Mineral salt ingredients possess various medical properties and work as an anti-aging formula and this is likely to further fuel revenue growth of the global mineral salt ingredients market. Increasing urbanization, changing lifestyles of people, and rapid advancements in product offerings are other factors likely to boost the growth of the global mineral salt ingredients market during the forecast period. The global mineral salt ingredients market is segmented by product type into Micro Mineral salt ingredients and Macro Mineral salt ingredients (Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium); by application into Dairy products, Infant formula, Functional food, Cosmetics and personal care, Pharmaceuticals, Agriculture, and Others; and by Region into North America, Latin America, Europe, Asia Pacific (APAC), and Middle East & Africa (MEA). Among the product type segments, the Macro Mineral salt ingredients segment is expected to exhibit the highest revenue growth, followed by the Micro Mineral salt ingredients segment over the forecast period. The Macro Mineral salt ingredients segment is expected to register a significant CAGR of 5.1% during the forecast period in terms of value. The Micro Mineral salt ingredients segment is projected to grow at a significant CAGR of 5.2% over the forecast period in terms of value. Among the application segments, the Functional food segment is expected to register a CAGR of 7.8% over the forecast period. Among regions, the Asia Pacific (APAC) market has been estimated to dominate the global mineral salt ingredients market, accounting for a maximum revenue share of the market by 2016 end. Europe is expected to account for over 25.3% revenue share of the global mineral salt ingredients market by 2016 end. Among the emerging markets, Latin America is estimated to exhibit a significant CAGR of 4.7% over the forecast period, followed by the North America market, due to an emerging trend of the adoption of functional foods as a rich source of mineral salt ingredients. The global mineral salt ingredients market report profiles some of the leading companies operating in this market. Corbion, Minerals Technologies Inc., Compass Minerals International Inc., Albion Laboratories, Inc., Dr. Paul Lohmann GmbH KG, K+S AKTIENGESELLSCHAFT, Gadot Biochemical Industries Ltd., Arla Foods amba, DuPont, Jungbunzlauer Suisse AG, SEPPIC, and Koninklijke DSM N.V. are some of the companies featured in the report. Leading market players are focusing on new market expansion through strategic mergers and acquisitions and joint ventures and are making significant investments in research and development activities to launch new products and cement their foothold in the global mineral salt ingredients market.


News Article | November 29, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

This report studies Mango Oil in Global market, especially in North America, Europe, China, Japan, Southeast Asia and India, with production, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions, from 2011 to 2015, and forecast to 2021. This report focuses on top manufacturers in global market, with production, price, revenue and market share for each manufacturer, covering  Klorane  Inesscents Aromatic Botanicals  Nature's Oil  Natures Garden  NaturalGirls  MOUNTAIN ROSE HERBS  brambleberry  Natural Dog  Rise N Shine Online  Elasta QP  SUNDIAL BRANDS LLC  Camden-Grey Essential Oils, Inc  Essential Depot, Inc.  FNWL  CP Kelco  Frank B. Ross Co., Inc.  Grant Industries  INOLEX  SEPPIC  Plant Therapy Essential Oils  The Organic Beauty  Nubian Heritage  Natural Sourcing, LLC  Jedwards International, Inc.  Dr. Hauschka Skin Care, Inc By types, the market can be split into  Refined Mango Oil  Unrefined Mango Oil  Type III By Application, the market can be split into  Cosmetics  Food  Pharmaceutical  Others By Regions, this report covers (we can add the regions/countries as you want)  North America  China  Europe  Southeast Asia  Japan  India 1 Industry Overview of Mango Oil  1.1 Definition and Specifications of Mango Oil  1.1.1 Definition of Mango Oil  1.1.2 Specifications of Mango Oil  1.2 Classification of Mango Oil  1.2.1 Refined Mango Oil  1.2.2 Unrefined Mango Oil  1.2.3 Type III  1.3 Applications of Mango Oil  1.3.1 Cosmetics  1.3.2 Food  1.3.3 Pharmaceutical  1.3.4 Others  1.4 Market Segment by Regions  1.4.1 North America  1.4.2 China  1.4.3 Europe  1.4.4 Southeast Asia  1.4.5 Japan  1.4.6 India 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Mango Oil  2.1 Raw Material and Suppliers  2.2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of Mango Oil  2.3 Manufacturing Process Analysis of Mango Oil  2.4 Industry Chain Structure of Mango Oil 3 Technical Data and Manufacturing Plants Analysis of Mango Oil  3.1 Capacity and Commercial Production Date of Global Mango Oil Major Manufacturers in 2015  3.2 Manufacturing Plants Distribution of Global Mango Oil Major Manufacturers in 2015  3.3 R&D Status and Technology Source of Global Mango Oil Major Manufacturers in 2015  3.4 Raw Materials Sources Analysis of Global Mango Oil Major Manufacturers in 2015 4 Global Mango Oil Overall Market Overview  4.1 2011-2016E Overall Market Analysis  4.2 Capacity Analysis  4.2.1 2011-2016E Global Mango Oil Capacity and Growth Rate Analysis  4.2.2 2015 Mango Oil Capacity Analysis (Company Segment)  4.3 Sales Analysis  4.3.1 2011-2016E Global Mango Oil Sales and Growth Rate Analysis  4.3.2 2015 Mango Oil Sales Analysis (Company Segment)  4.4 Sales Price Analysis  4.4.1 2011-2016E Global Mango Oil Sales Price  4.4.2 2015 Mango Oil Sales Price Analysis (Company Segment) 8 Major Manufacturers Analysis of Mango Oil  8.1 Klorane  8.1.1 Company Profile  8.1.2 Product Picture and Specifications  8.1.2.1 Type I  8.1.2.2 Type II  8.1.2.3 Type III  8.1.3 Klorane 2015 Mango Oil Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis  8.1.4 Klorane 2015 Mango Oil Business Region Distribution Analysis  8.2 Inesscents Aromatic Botanicals  8.2.1 Company Profile  8.2.2 Product Picture and Specifications  8.2.2.1 Type I  8.2.2.2 Type II  8.2.2.3 Type III  8.2.3 Inesscents Aromatic Botanicals 2015 Mango Oil Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis  8.2.4 Inesscents Aromatic Botanicals 2015 Mango Oil Business Region Distribution Analysis  8.3 Nature's Oil  8.3.1 Company Profile  8.3.2 Product Picture and Specifications  8.3.2.1 Type I  8.3.2.2 Type II  8.3.2.3 Type III  8.3.3 Nature's Oil 2015 Mango Oil Sales, Ex-factory Price, Revenue, Gross Margin Analysis  8.3.4 Nature's Oil 2015 Mango Oil Business Region Distribution Analysis  8.4 Natures Garden  8.4.1 Company Profile  8.4.2 Product Picture and Specifications  8.4.2.1 Type I  8.4.2.2 Type II  8.4.2.3 Type III


News Article | November 16, 2016
Site: www.newsmaker.com.au

Notes: Sales, means the sales volume of Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue, means the sales value of Cetearyl Alcohol This report studies sales (consumption) of Cetearyl Alcohol in Global market, especially in United States, China, Europe, Japan, focuses on top players in these regions/countries, with sales, price, revenue and market share for each player in these regions, covering KLK OLEO VVF L.L.C Joshi Group Dr. Straetmans HallStar Company BASF Chemyunion Lubrizol Croda SEPPIC Shanghai Saifu Chemical Development Ashland Inc Lonza Group INOLEX Market Segment by Regions, this report splits Global into several key Regions, with sales (consumption), revenue, market share and growth rate of Cetearyl Alcohol in these regions, from 2011 to 2021 (forecast), like United States China Europe Japan Split by product Types, with sales, revenue, price and gross margin, market share and growth rate of each type, can be divided into Type I Type II Type III Split by applications, this report focuses on sales, market share and growth rate of Cetearyl Alcohol in each application, can be divided into Application 1 Application 2 Application 3 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Market Report 2016 1 Cetearyl Alcohol Overview 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Cetearyl Alcohol 1.2 Classification of Cetearyl Alcohol 1.2.1 Type I 1.2.2 Type II 1.2.3 Type III 1.3 Application of Cetearyl Alcohol 1.3.1 Application 1 1.3.2 Application 2 1.3.3 Application 3 1.4 Cetearyl Alcohol Market by Regions 1.4.1 United States Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.2 China Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.3 Europe Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.4.4 Japan Status and Prospect (2011-2021) 1.5 Global Market Size (Value and Volume) of Cetearyl Alcohol (2011-2021) 1.5.1 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 1.5.2 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) 2 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Competition by Manufacturers, Type and Application 2.1 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Market Competition by Manufacturers 2.1.1 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales and Market Share of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016) 2.1.2 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) 2.2 Global Cetearyl Alcohol (Volume and Value) by Type 2.2.1 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) 2.2.2 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) 2.3 Global Cetearyl Alcohol (Volume and Value) by Regions 2.3.1 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016) 2.3.2 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Market Share by Regions (2011-2016) 2.4 Global Cetearyl Alcohol (Volume) by Application Figure Picture of Cetearyl Alcohol Table Classification of Cetearyl Alcohol Figure Global Sales Market Share of Cetearyl Alcohol by Type in 2015 Figure Type I Picture Figure Type II Picture Table Applications of Cetearyl Alcohol Figure Global Sales Market Share of Cetearyl Alcohol by Application in 2015 Figure Application 1 Examples Figure Application 2 Examples Figure United States Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure China Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Europe Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Japan Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Figure Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Growth Rate (2011-2021) Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales of Key Manufacturers (2011-2016) Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) Figure 2015 Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Share by Manufacturers Figure 2016 Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Share by Manufacturers Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue by Manufacturers (2011-2016) Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue Share by Manufacturers (2011-2016) Table 2015 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue Share by Manufacturers Table 2016 Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue Share by Manufacturers Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Share by Type (2011-2016) Figure Sales Market Share of Cetearyl Alcohol by Type (2011-2016) Figure Global Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Growth Rate by Type (2011-2016) Table Global Cetearyl Alcohol Revenue and Market Share by Type (2011-2016) FOR ANY QUERY, REACH US @    Cetearyl Alcohol Sales Global Market Research Report 2016


Jang S.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Jang S.I.,Institute of Health and Environment | Kim D.K.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Chickens were immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein plus Montanide™ ISA 70 VG (ISA 70) or Montanide™ ISA 71 VG (ISA 71) water-in-oil adjuvants, or with profilin alone, and comparative RNA microarray hybridizations were performed to ascertain global transcriptome changes induced by profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone and by profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone. While immunization with profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone altered the levels of more total transcripts compared with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone (509 vs. 296), the latter was associated with a greater number of unique biological functions, and a larger number of genes within these functions, compared with the former. Further, canonical pathway analysis identified 10 pathways that were associated with genes encoding the altered transcripts in animals immunized with profilin/ISA 71 vs. profilin alone, compared with only 2 pathways in profilin/ISA 70 vs. profilin alone. Therefore, ISA 71 was selected as a candidate adjuvant in conjunction with profilin vaccination for in vivo disease protection studies. Vaccination with profilin/ISA 71 was associated with greater body weight gain following E. acervulina infection, and decreased parasite fecal shedding after E. maxima infection, compared with profilin alone. Anti-profilin antibody levels were higher in sera of E. maxima- and E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. Finally, the levels of transcripts encoding interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and IL-17A were increased in intestinal lymphocytes from E. acervulina-, E. maxima-, and/or E. tenella-infected chickens vaccinated with profilin/ISA 71 compared with profilin alone. None of these effects were seen in chickens injected with ISA 71 alone indicating that the adjuvant was not conferring non-specific immune stimulation. These results suggest that profilin plus ISA 71 augments protective immunity against selective Eimeria species in chickens.


Jang S.I.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lillehoj H.S.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee S.-H.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Lee K.W.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 9 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2012

This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified clostridial recombinant NetB toxin, pyruvate: ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO), α-toxin, or elongation factor-Tu (EF-Tu), or with vehicle control, in conjunction with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal lesion scores, body weight gains, NetB toxin and PFO antibody levels, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine levels were measured as outcomes of protection following oral co-infection with C. perfringens and Eimeria maxima. Birds immunized with all recombinant proteins plus ISA 71 VG showed significantly reduced gut lesions compared with the ISA 71 VG-only group. Birds immunized with NetB toxin or PFO plus ISA 71 VG exhibited significantly increased body weight gains compared with the ISA 71 VG alone group. Greater NetB toxin antibody titers were observed in the NetB/ISA 71 VG group, and greater PFO antibody titers were evident in the PFO/ISA 71 VG group, each compared with the other three vaccine/adjuvant groups. Finally, decreased levels of gene transcripts encoding interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and LPS-induced TNF-α factor were observed in the intestinal lymphocytes of chickens immunized with NetB toxin, PFO, α-toxin, and/or EF-Tu in the presence of ISA 71 VG compared with ISA 71 VG alone. All parameters evaluated were equal in co-infected chickens given ISA 71 VG alone compared with infected/adjuvant-free birds, indicating that the adjuvant itself did not have a disease protective effect. These results suggest that vaccination with clostridial recombinant proteins, particularly NetB toxin or PFO, in combination with ISA 71 VG enhances protective immunity against experimental necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens. © 2012.


Guilbot J.,SEPPIC | Kerverdo S.,SEPPIC | Milius A.,SEPPIC | Escola R.,ECO2 Initiative | Pomrehn F.,LURGI
Green Chemistry | Year: 2013

Purpose: Cetearyl glucoside and cetearyl alcohol are an alkyl polyglucoside composition (APG) widely used in personal care as an efficient and versatile self-emulsifier. This ingredient is considered as green thanks to its vegetable origin and to its manufacturing process complying with the 12 rules of Green Chemistry. Beyond these general criteria, the rising environmental concern among consumers encourages manufacturers to provide quantifiable measures highlighting the real impacts of a product on the environment. In order to respond to this need, the aim of this work was to study, from an environmental point of view, the contribution of the use of APG in a cosmetic cream (raw materials, glucosylation process, formulation process, chemical inputs, energy, transport, waste management, end use, and recycling) and to assess several potential improvements to decrease its global impacts. Materials and methods: The methodology used was the life cycle assessment (LCA) according to the ISO 14-040 standard. Two approaches were chosen: (a) from the cultivation of vegetable raw materials to the final use by consumers and recycling (from cradle to grave) and (b) from the cultivation of vegetable raw materials to the production of APG (from cradle to gate). The two corresponding functional units were defined as follows: (a) the preparation of a cosmetic oil in water emulsion having suitable stability and allowing the face hydration of a consumer during 1 year and (b) the preparation of 1 t of packaged APG in a plant located in the South of France. To comply with these two functional units, the life cycle was divided into 4 phases (gate to gate): the agricultural and transformation phase A, the chemical process phase B, the formulation process phase C and finally the end use phase D. The life cycle inventory data collected were based either on bibliographical sources or on direct industrial data. Seven impact categories were selected for their relevance (ozone depletion, global warming, mineral resources, petrochemical resources, eco-toxicity, acidification/eutrophication, and water consumption). For each significant environmental impact, sensitivity assessments were carried out to identify potential improvements regarding the two functional units. Results and discussion: The results show that the formulation process phase C and the end use phase D are the main key issues of the cosmetic cream life cycle. Their respective environmental contributions are between 15 and 51% and between 30 and 77% depending on the impact category. Regarding the formulation step, the two most contributing parameters are the emulsion oil and the cream packaging. The impacts of oil are directly linked to the quantity involved (20% in the cream) and also to the cultivation conditions of the plant from which the oil is extracted. A sensitivity study on the nature of the packaging highlights that glass is much better than PET. As far as the end use of the cream is concerned, the main impacting parameter is the purchasing by the consumer (between 33 and 77%). It was clearly proved that APG has relatively low impacts when it is formulated at 5% in a cosmetic cream (between 4 and 24%). Despite this low contribution, the environmental profile of APG was examined and indicated the high impacts of the cetearyl alcohol (more than 80% by weight in APG). For instance, the carbon footprint of APG directly depends on the cultivation mode of the palm trees and, according to the land use change, it can vary between 1.9 and 49.8 t CO2 eq. per t of APG. The impacts directly due to the glucosylation process are between 2 and 12%, mainly coming from the transport of raw materials and waste management. Conclusions: The present LCA gave a precise picture of the role that APG plays in the environmental profile of a cosmetic emulsion. The next step may be to compare its impacts with those of other surfactants that also respond to the first functional unit in order to functional unit in order to confirm the green status of this kind of biosurfactant. Finally, improvements in APG processing and use can also be brought about and all levels of the production chain are relevant: raw material suppliers (fatty alcohol quality and transport), APG manufacturers (utilities consumption follow-up, waste management and transport), finished cosmetic product formulators (packaging) and final consumers (transport mode). © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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