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Le Bouquin S.,University Europeenne Of Bretagne Anses | Huneau-Salaun A.,University Europeenne Of Bretagne Anses | Huonnic D.,University Europeenne Of Bretagne Anses | Balaine L.,University Europeenne Of Bretagne Anses | And 2 more authors.
Poultry Science | Year: 2013

Agricultural workers, and pig and poultry farmers in particular, are exposed to airborne contaminants including organic dusts, gases, fungi, bacteria, and endotoxins that can have adverse effects on their respiratory health. To date, data comparing the aerial dust concentrations in the different hen-housing systems used by commercial poultry farmers are scarce. An epidemiological study was conducted in commercial housing facilities for laying hens, half of which were housed in a cage system without litter and the remaining half on an on-floor system with litter. The aims were to measure and compare the ambient dust concentrations in the different housing systems and identify any factors in building design and hen management that could influence the dust burden. An average concentration of respirable ambient dusts (≤4 μm) of 0.37 mg/m3 (95% CI [0.31-0.42]) was measured in the on-floor system, and this value was higher than average values in the cage system {0.13 mg/m3 (95% CI [0.11-0.14]) P = 0.01}. The highest dust concentration was observed in aviaries (1.19 mg/m3 [0.80-1.59]). The type of housing and the presence of litter therefore had a preponderant effect on air quality. Dust concentrations in caged buildings were influenced by cage design and rearing practices, whereas litter management, the age of hens, and temperature control were determining factors for dust levels in on-floor houses. This study underlines the need for information and preventive measures to reduce the exposure of poultry workers to bioaerosols, particularly in alternative systems where high levels of ambient dust were observed. © 2013 Poultry Science Association Inc.


Caillaud D.,Service de pneumologie | Toloba Y.,Service de pneumologie | Raobison R.,Service de pneumologie | Besancenot J.-P.,Reseau National de Surveillance Aerobiologique RNSA | And 3 more authors.
Revue des Maladies Respiratoires | Year: 2014

The aim of this review is to describe the health impact of exposure to pollen based on recently published epidemiological studies. The methodology chapter, describes a review of the literature and outlines important elements of these studies: measurement of exposure to pollens, study types used, study populations and the health indicators related to pollen exposure. In this review, two types of studies have been used to assess the epidemiological evidence of short-term links between pollen exposure and hay fever or asthma. Ecological time-series studies use daily indicators of asthma exacerbations (emergency room admissions or hospitalizations), consultations for rhinitis or conjunctivitis, or anti-allergic drug consumption within general population. Panel studies relate measurements of pollen grain concentrations to nasal, ocular and bronchial symptom severity in a group of subjects sensitized to a specific pollen, monitored during the pollen season. In both cases, the studies show a relationship on a day-to-day basis between health indicators and daily rates of atmospheric pollen collected by a pollen trap. These studies take into account confounding factors, such as air pollution, weather factors and sometimes exposure to outdoor molds. Unlike earlier studies, more and more studies focus on the shape of the dose-response relationship and the lag between pollen exposure and symptoms. Only rarely, individual susceptibility factors, the clinical phenomenon of priming and polysensitization are reported. Thus, ecological time-series studies and panel studies assess respectively the impact of pollen exposure in the general population and in groups of sensitized patients. Using appropriate statistical tools, these studies provide insight into the shape of the dose-response relationship, with a potential threshold below which symptoms are absent, then a linear relationship for nasal, ocular and bronchial symptoms and a plateau where the symptoms do not increase despite the continued increase in pollen. © 2013 SPLF.


Caillaud D.M.,University of Auvergne | Martin S.,SEPIA Sante | Segala C.,SEPIA Sante | Vidal P.,Direction Regionale Service Medical Auvergne | And 5 more authors.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2015

Background Few time-series studies, and none lasting longer than 4 years, have investigated the etiology of treated seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (SAR) on the basis of anti-allergic medication prescriptions. The aim of this article was to study the short-term relationship between pollen exposure and drug-treated SAR over 10 years in an urban area in central France. Methods A SAR case was defined as the association between an oral antihistamine and a local anti-allergic drug on the same prescription. The relationship between daily changes in pollen concentrations and daily changes in the number of treated SAR cases was analysed using generalized additive models, taking into account confounding factors such as air pollution, weather and days of the week. Results Between 2003 and 2012, the total yearly number of treated SAR cases rose from 7265 to 11 315. The relative risk of treated SAR associated with an interquartile increase in pollen concentration increased significantly for Fraxinus, Betula, Carpinus, Platanus, Poaceae and Urticaceae for the whole pollen season, and for Urticaceae in the first semester. Conclusions The prevalence of treated SAR cases rose by about 55% in 10 years. The study not only confirmed the highly allergenic role of Fraxinus, Betula and Poaceae pollens but also showed a relatively unknown association between treated SAR and Carpinus and Platanus pollens, despite their pollen counts being <1% of overall pollen concentration. It also showed robust correlations with Urticaceae pollens, especially during the first semester, suggesting a potential allergenic role of Parietaria pollination in this non-Mediterranean area. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Deguen S.,EHESP School of Public Health | Segala C.,SEPIA Sante | Pedrono G.,SEPIA Sante | Mesbah M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie
Risk Analysis | Year: 2012

Despite improvements in air quality in developed countries, air pollution remains a major public health issue. To fully assess the health impact, we must consider that air pollution exposure has both physical and psychological effects; this latter dimension, less documented, is more difficult to measure and subjective indicators constitute an appropriate alternative. In this context, this work presents the methodological development of a new scale to measure the perception of air quality, useful as an exposure or risk appraisal metric in public health contexts. On the basis of the responses from 2,522 subjects in eight French cities, psychometric methods are used to construct the scale from 22 items that assess risk perception (anxiety about health and quality of life) and the extent to which air pollution is a nuisance (sensorial perception and symptoms). The scale is robust, reproducible, and discriminates between subpopulations more susceptible to poor air pollution perception. The individual risk factors of poor air pollution perception are coherent with those findings in the risk perception literature. Perception of air pollution by the general public is a key issue in the development of comprehensive risk assessment studies as well as in air pollution risk management and policy. This study offers a useful new tool to measure such efforts and to help set priorities for air quality improvements in combination with air quality measurements. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.


Caillaud D.,Service de pneumologie | Martin S.,SEPIA Sante | Segala C.,SEPIA Sante | Besancenot J.-P.,A+ Network | And 2 more authors.
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2014

Background: Most panel studies focusing on rhinitis and conjunctivitis symptoms and birch pollen have been performed on a linear basis and have not included air pollution and meteorological variables as potential confounders. The objective of this panel study was to assess the relationship between symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and daily airborne birch pollen concentrations, checking with adequate statistical tools the shapes of concentration-response curves and controlling for confounders. Methods: The severity of rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and bronchial symptoms was recorded daily in March and April 2010 (3,311 person-days) in 61 seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients sensitized to birch. Data were analyzed with generalized additive and generalized estimating equation models to quantify the effects of birch pollens. Results: The relationship between birch pollen and the percentage of patients with nasal, ocular and bronchial symptoms was linear until birch daily average concentrations of, respectively, 110, 70, and 70 grains/m3; it reached a plateau thereafter. For an increase of 10 grains/m3, the OR (95% CI) for nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms were, respectively, 1.07 (1.03-1.12), 1.17 (1.08-1.27), and 1.12 (1.03-1.21). At the beginning of the season, no nasal or ocular symptoms were observed below a threshold of 30 grains/m3. Conclusions: Adequate modeling regression shows that the clinical response to natural exposure to birch pollen in sensitized patients varies during Betula pollen season, with a threshold at the beginning of the season, while over the whole season the relationship is linear for nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms up to a saturation point, followed by a plateau. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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