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Jeong J.-K.,Pusan National University | Kim Y.-W.,Pusan National University | Choi H.-S.,South Korean National Institute of Animal Science | Lee D.S.,Kyungnam University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology

Kimchi was fermented in onggi and other containers at 4°C for 4weeks. Two types of onggi were used: glazed and nonglazed onggi. Other containers such as polyethylene plastic containers, polypropylene containers for use in a kimchi refrigerator, stainless steel and glass bottles were used. During the fermentation, kimchi fermented in onggi showed relatively stable acidity change compared with those in the other containers. Also it showed higher lactic acid bacteria multiplication (108-109cfug-1 at 4th week) but slower general aerobic bacteria multiplication than the others. The springiness of kimchi fermented in onggi was more than 50% at 4th week, it is higher than the others. Its carbonic acid taste and overall acceptability were excellent in sensory evaluations. The antioxidative and cancer-cell antiproliferative activities were also greater in kimchi fermented in onggi than the others. Between the two types of onggi, nonglazed onggi showed better results in both properties and functionalities of kimchi. Onggi showed higher gas permeability than polyethylene plastic containers and glass bottles because of its porous structure, and lactic acid bacteria could have benefited from this condition. It possibly contributes to optimal ripening of kimchi resulting in better properties, especially texture and taste, and health functionalities. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Food Science and Technology © 2011 Institute of Food Science and Technology. Source

Lee B.,Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology | Cho H.,Samsung | Chae M.,Seoul University of Venture and Information | Shim S.,Seoul Womens University
Expert Systems with Applications

Online auctions allow buyers to find a wider variety of items and help sellers to reach literally millions of buyers. Auctioning over the internet gives a variety of opportunities that are not offered for consumers offline. However, on the other hand, it also provides good conditions for opportunistic behaviors because of the high degree of information asymmetry. To prevent online auction fraud, preventative controls verifying the identities of auction users can be imposed. However, these measures can adversely affect the potential user-base of online markets. In this paper, we examine the ex-post detection of online fraud. Among examples of serious online fraud prevalent in auctions, we investigate the factors necessary to detect "online credit card phantom transactions," which are fake transactions for illegal loan sharking through the collusion of the seller (creditor) and buyer (debtor). In this paper, we develop a plausible detection methodology for online fraud. In addition, employing a data collection agent, we demonstrate cost-efficient ways of data collection. Auctioneers, e-business firms with fraud-related problems, and regulatory agencies can all take advantage of this methodology. Academically, we believe that our research is a new addition to the body of empirical studies on online auction fraud. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Davis B.R.,Cornell University | Wawrzynek P.A.,Fracture Analysis Consultants, Inc. | Hwang C.G.,Seoul University of Venture and Information | Ingraffea A.R.,Cornell University
Engineering Fracture Mechanics

A technique was implemented for decomposing 3-D mixed-mode energy release rates using the Virtual Crack Extension (VCE) method. The technique uses a symmetric/anti-symmetric approach to decompose local crack-front displacements that are substituted into the global VCE energy release rate form. The subsequent expansion leads to the mixed-mode energy release rate expressions. As a result of the expansion, previously unaddressed modal-interaction coupling terms are found to impact the mixed-mode energy release rates. This development expands the VCE method's advantages over similar procedures when simulating arbitrary crack growth by providing the means to calculate both mixed-mode energy release rates and their variations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Kim K.H.,Seoul Womens University | Kim A.H.,Seoul University of Venture and Information | Chun M.S.,Korea University | Noh B.S.,Seoul Womens University
Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology

An 'electronic nose' based on mass spectrometer and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to evaluate the grade of coffee beans. The data obtained from the electronic nose was analyzed by DFA. The discriminant function first score (DF1) of natural coffee beans showed a greater decrease than the different processing methods. Defective coffee beans were separated well from non-defective coffee beans by DF1, which correlated with a weaker flavor than that of the others. Flavor patterns of the defective and the non-defective coffee beans were determined as complementary information. The flavor patterns obtained in this study can explain, in a simplified way, the differences between the defective and the non-defective coffee beans.©The Korean Society of Food Science and Technology 2014. Source

Yum H.,Monitor Group | Lee B.,KAIST | Chae M.,Seoul University of Venture and Information
Electronic Commerce Research and Applications

Information asymmetry is one of the fundamental problems that online peer-to-peer (P2P) lending platforms face. This problem becomes more acute when platforms are used for microfinance, where the targeted customers are mostly economically under-privileged people. Most of the prior empirical studies have been based on data from Prosper.com or similar sites that compete in traditional consumer loan markets. Our study examines P2P lending in microfinance for which borrowers are unbankable so that signals on creditworthiness of new borrowers are very limited. In addition, microfinance customers have more incentive to repeatedly seek loans from the market. Under this microfinance setting, we examine how lenders change their decisions as creditworthiness inference becomes increasingly possible through the accumulation of transaction history. Our findings confirm that lenders seek the wisdom of crowds when information on creditworthiness is extremely limited but switch to their own judgment when more signals are transmitted through the market. Different information sets are utilized according to the structures of decisions. Due to the possibility of a repeated game, it is also shown that borrowers try to maintain a good reputation, and direct communication with lenders may adjust incorrect inference from hard data when their creditworthiness is questioned. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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