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Yanggu, South Korea

Ko J.,Seoul Institute
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers) | Year: 2013

The article examines vehicle trip generation rates for office buildings in Seoul, South Korea, one of the densest cities where transit systems and employer-based travel demand management (TDM) programs are well established. Seoul has been implementing a variety of TDM measures, including a voluntary weekly no-driving day program, congestion pricing, and parking caps. One such measure is an employer-based TDM composed of 19 programs, including parking regulations, vehicle number plate rationing programs, commuter bus operations, and carpool options. Data on site characteristics were collected for the sampled buildings. The data included floor area, numbers of parking spaces and employees, location, distances to the nearest subway station and bus stop, numbers of subway stations within 300 m and 500 m, and numbers of bus stops and lines within 300 m.

Benschop C.C.G.,Netherlands Forensic Institute | Haned H.,Netherlands Forensic Institute | Yoo S.Y.,Netherlands Forensic Institute | Yoo S.Y.,Seoul Institute | Sijen T.,Netherlands Forensic Institute
Science and Justice | Year: 2015

Minute amounts of DNA representing only few diploid cells, may be interrogated using enhanced DNA profiling, which will be accompanied by stochastic amplification effects. Notwithstanding, a weight of evidence statistic may be calculated using current interpretation software. In this study, we profiled single donor, two- and three-person samples having only 3pg to 12pg of DNA per contributor using both standard and enhanced capillary electrophoresis (CE) injection settings. Likelihood ratios (LRs) were computed using LRmix Studio, compared for both types of profiles and examined in relation to the amount of DNA, drop-out level, number of detected alleles, peak heights and reproducibility of alleles. Especially for DNA profiles that were generated using enhanced CE, the obtained LRs could indicate strong evidence in favour of the prosecution (log10(LR) >6), also when the amount of DNA represented about half of a diploid cell equivalent in the amplification. These results illustrate that an assessment of the criminalistic relevance of a sample carrying minute amounts of DNA is essential prior to applying enhanced interrogation techniques and/or calculating a weight of evidence statistic. © 2015 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences.

Kim K.-M.,Yonsei University | Kim K.-M.,Seoul Institute | Kim M.-K.,Yonsei University | Paek H.-J.,Seoul Womens University | And 2 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces | Year: 2016

We evaluated size dependent cellular uptake of ZnO nanoparticles utilizing stably introduced Cy5.5, which emits long-wavelength fluorescence. Through (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane modification, ZnO nanoparticles of different sizes (20 and 70 nm) were functionalized with amine moiety, which was further reacted with Cy5.5-N-hydroxylsuccinimide ester to make covalently conjugated Cy5.5 dye on ZnO nanoparticles. Field emission-scanning electron microscopic images revealed that average particle size as well as particle morphology of ZnO nanoparticles were not altered by Cy5.5 conjugation. Zeta potential measurement confirmed that the positive surface charge of ZnO nanoparticles was well preserved after successive conjugation reactions. Based on infrared, ultraviolet-visible light and photoluminescence spectroscopies, we verify that the Cy5.5 was stably introduced to ZnO nanoparticles without serious aggregation. Surface conjugated Cy5.5 showed high stability in deionized water, phosphate buffered saline and cell culture medium, showing less than 2% of release during 85 h. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis demonstrated that smaller ZnO nanoparticles were more taken up in greater quantities by HaCaT cells. Moreover, systematic study on cellular uptake pathway showed that smaller ZnO nanoparticles were internalized into cells mainly by clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while larger ZnO nanoparticles entered cells via several pathways. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Kim S.M.,Kongju National University | Yoo S.Y.,Kongju National University | Yoo S.Y.,Seoul Institute | Nam S.H.,Kongju National University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Legal Medicine | Year: 2016

Analysis of large numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can increase individual discrimination power, and, particularly, it can supply important evidence for kinship or ethnic identification. We identified 300 Korean-specific SNPs from 306 Korean whole-exome sequencing (WES) data. Functionally significant SNPs (variants in splicing site, missense, nonsense, and exonic indels) were filtered out from the variant pool, and SNPs with minor allele frequencies (MAFs) of <0.3 in the 1000 Genomes (1000G) database but >0.3 in the Korean population were selected. Genotypes obtained from WES were confirmed by the Sanger sequencing method. The identified markers were evenly distributed throughout the autosomal chromosomes. All the SNPs were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium with a mean MAF of 0.415 (0.161 in 1000G). The mean heterozygosities were 0.476 (observed) and 0.470 (experimental). The combined power of discrimination was very high. Korean MAFs in most SNPs were similar to those for the Chinese and Japanese populations, but were significantly higher than those for several other ethnic populations. These selected SNPs will be used to develop forensic markers and are expected to be widely used for additional individual identification, ethnic discrimination, and linkage analysis for kinship tests. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Benschop C.C.G.,Netherlands Forensic Institute | Yoo S.Y.,Seoul Institute | Sijen T.,Netherlands Forensic Institute
Forensic Science International: Genetics Supplement Series | Year: 2015

We assessed various approaches for DNA profiling using the same total amount of DNA. The choice of profiling approach affects genotyping success and may in addition affect the likelihood ratio (LR). © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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