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Lieshout R.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

Although much empirical research exists on the factors that drive passenger airport choice, not much is known about the related topic of airport catchment area size. This paper presents a novel methodology to assess the size of airport catchment areas and the airport's market shares therein using a MNL passenger choice model. The methodology is applied to Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The results show that the size of its catchment area differs considerably by destination. Schiphol's market share within its catchment area declined between 2005 and 2011 due to increased competition from airports located to the south and southeast. Airports may use the presented methodology to evaluate the spatial nature of their catchment areas to understand passenger airport choice and the competitive forces in their respective hinterland regions. In addition, the methodology shows airports the effects of changes to service level offerings (in terms of frequencies and fares) on their catchment area and the market shares therein. Furthermore, the methodology may be of use to policymakers to estimate the competitive position of airports in the OD-markets served and to assess the effects of infrastructure investments on catchment area size and airport market shares. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


de Wit J.G.,University of Amsterdam | de Wit J.G.,The Netherlands Institute of Transport Policy Analysis | Zuidberg J.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2012

Today, many low cost carriers (LCCs) continue to enjoy rapid growth and still have a fair number of new aircraft on order. There are signs however that the market for LCCs is limited, owing to increasing route density problems, primarily in Europe but seemingly also in North America: the fact that average frequencies have decreased and average route distances increased since 2001 indicate that LCCs are increasingly operating in exceedingly thinner niche markets. This perhaps explains why LCCs have been trying to adapt their business strategies to assure future growth by shifting to primary airports, facilitating transfers, engaging in codesharing, entering alliances, and acquiring other airlines. This paper identifies the possible factors limiting the LCC model's growth and explains how the largest LCCs in Europe and the US have subsequently reacted. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Suau-Sanchez P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Burghouwt G.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2012

This paper examines the connectivity of the Spanish airport system between 2001 and 2007. Over the period, network carriers considerably strengthened the connectivity between Spanish airports and major European hubs. Although OneWorld is still the dominant alliance in Spain, SkyTeam and Star achieved a larger connectivity share through the growth of indirect services provided through their northern European hubs. In addition, the network rationalization strategy of Iberia and its decision to concentrate operations at Madrid-Barajas had important implications for the connectivity of other Spanish airports. Low-cost carriers have boosted direct connectivity from secondary Spanish airports. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Lieshout R.,SEO Economic Research | Matsumoto H.,Kobe University
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2012

With the completion of Narita International Airport (Narita) in the Greater Tokyo Area, Tokyo International Airport (Haneda) was practically downgraded to a domestic airport. It lost its position as a key traffic hub for domestic to international air transport in Japan. Now the Japanese government is trying to expand its international role again by the resumption of international air services at the airport. A route choice probability model is applied to show how Haneda's hub competitive position in its connecting markets from Japan has changed since the resumption of these services.The results reveal that Haneda's market shares increased significantly in the markets between Japan and Asia-Oceania, between Japan and Europe and between Japan and North America. The dense domestic networks offered at Haneda appear to connect well with the newly started international flights to Asia-Oceania, Europe and North America. The competitive position of Haneda in the connecting markets from Japan is expected to increase towards 2013 when its international air networks will be expanded further. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


de Wit J.G.,University of Amsterdam | Zuidberg J.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2016

Discontinuity of air routes is a subject that has been analysed in various ways. For example, the complex network approach focuses on network robustness and resilience due to route interruptions during a relatively short period. Also seasonal interruptions of air routes are a well-documented phenomenon in the context of demand variability. However, only recently discussions emerge on the more permanent cessation of air routes, the route churn. Today, European low-cost carriers frequently apply route churn in their networks. To enable early route churn detection in these networks, a regression model is developed in which route characteristics explain the churning likelihood of individual routes. The results of the econometric analysis show that churn rates are higher during an economic downturn, within the Eastern European market, between the Eastern and the Mediterranean market and between primary airports. In addition, we find that distance and the number of seats offered have a significant negative effect on the churn likelihood. The results also show significant effects of market share, seasonality and route age on the chance of cessation. To conclude, the paper demonstrates substantial differences in churn behaviour amongst specific low-cost carriers. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Burghouwt G.,SEO Economic Research | Redondi R.,University of Brescia
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy | Year: 2013

This paper classifies and compares eight different connectivity models employed in air transport literature and applies them to European airports. Traditional size-based measures tend to underestimate the accessibility of small airports and overestimate the centrality of large airports. Small airports may have high accessibility levels if they have a few flights to well-connected hub airports. The correlation between the measures is much higher for larger airports than for smaller ones. At lower levels of analysis, the choice of the connectivity measure substantially influences the results obtained. We have identified the criteria that must be considered when choosing a connectivity measure.


Zuidberg J.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy | Year: 2014

Recently, differentiations in airport charges have been the subject of juridical complaints. This study identifies key drivers for differentiated passenger service charges. The results suggest airports tend to apply differentiations in favour of their most important users. This is illustrated by the fact that hub airports are more likely to differentiate between transfer and origin/destination (O/D) passengers, while regional and public service airports tend to apply reduced tariffs for domestic passengers. However, applying charging structures in accordance with the wishes of an airport's most important user(s) may be in accordance with a more market-oriented strategy, leading to profit maximisation.


Zuidberg J.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Air Transport Management | Year: 2014

This paper provides the results of an econometric analysis of the influences of airline characteristics on the average operating costs per aircraft movement. The analysis combines a comprehensive selection of airline-output variables, airline-fleet variables, and airline-market variables. The results confirm the existence of economies of density, economies of load factor, economies of aircraft utilisation and economies of aircraft size. The paper does not provide evidence of economies of scale, economies of stage length or economies of fleet commonality. Furthermore, airlines that additionally operate full freighters, airlines that are members of a worldwide alliance and airlines that operate a multi-hub system face higher average operating costs per aircraft movement. Surprisingly, the regression results demonstrate that airlines that use newer aircraft have higher average operating costs per aircraft movement, suggesting that ownership costs (depreciation and leasing costs) of new aircraft outweigh the increasing maintenance costs of old aircraft. Finally, the results show that airlines that have a dominant position at their hubs or bases have higher operating costs per aircraft movement, implying that the absence of serious competitive pressure enables airlines to charge higher ticket prices and, with that, leads to a limited focus on cost savings. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Van Asseldonk M.A.P.M.,Wageningen University | Prins J.,SEO Economic Research | Bergevoet R.H.M.,Wageningen University
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

In this paper the economic impact of controlling the Q fever epidemic in 2007-2011 in the Netherlands is assessed. Whereas most of the long-term benefits of the implemented control programme stem from reduced disease burden and human health costs, the majority of short-term intervention costs were incurred in the dairy goat sector. The total intervention cost in agriculture amounted approximately 35,000. Euro per DALY occurred. By culling of infected animals, breeding prohibition and vaccination, the epidemic seems to be under control. As the dairy goat vaccination programme continues, future expenses in maintaining the current protected status are relatively low. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Suau-Sanchez P.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Burghouwt G.,SEO Economic Research
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2011

This paper analyzes the geography of seat capacity at Spanish airports between 2001 and 2008. Concentration and deconcentration patterns for different markets have been identified. For this purpose, we use the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI), the Concentration Ratio (CR) and the Lorenz curve. From our analysis, we conclude that seat capacity follows a deconcentration pattern due to the growth of low-cost carriers at small- and medium-sized Spanish airports. This is in line with earlier studies for Europe as a whole. Intercontinental seat capacity still remains very much concentrated in Madrid and, to a lesser extent, in Barcelona. However, new strategies by long-haul airlines bypassing the primary European hubs foster the deconcentration of seat capacity in the Asian and North American markets. In the case of Spain, the recent liberalization of the EU-US market may become an important enabler of such network strategies, e.g., Delta has operated a route from Valencia to New York-JFK since 2009. In other intercontinental markets, capacity is more and more concentrated in Madrid. We highlight the restructuring of Iberia's network as an important factor behind the increasing dominance of Madrid in intercontinental markets. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

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