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Morningside, Australia
Morningside, Australia
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Casey T.W.,Sentis | Krauss A.D.,Sentis | Turner N.,University of Calgary
Safety Science | Year: 2017

Fishing is an extremely hazardous occupation with one of the highest rates of work-based injuries and fatalities globally. Psychology-based safety training represents one approach to improving fishing safety by addressing safety-related attitudes and beliefs, as well as fostering safety knowledge and more positive safety behaviors (such as safety compliance and safety participation). Partnering with a fishing industry association, we evaluated the impact of safety training within the Australian prawn fishing environment. The study employed a longitudinal design with three data collection points: baseline (pre-program), proximal follow-up (immediately post-program), and one-month follow-up. Although some positive changes were observed for safety knowledge and safety compliance, we encountered logistical challenges that limited our ability to evaluate comprehensively the efficacy of the safety training. Consequently, we provide an analysis of 'lessons learned' and offer practical advice to assist applied safety researchers in conducting future safety training studies in the fishing industry. We also describe our psychology-based safety training in detail with the intention of informing future intervention development in this at-risk industry setting. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.


Bowen M.,Sentis
Society of Petroleum Engineers - 1st SPE African Health, Safety, Security and Environment and Social Responsibility Conference and Exhibition 2014 - Protecting People and the Environment: Getting it Right for the Development of the Oil and Gas Industry in Africa | Year: 2014

Traditional Behavioural Based safety systems have been implemented in organizations and industries across the globe, with some success. Yet across organizations safety performance has reached a plateau and in many cases incidents and injuries are again on the rise. A key part of the reason is that a purely behavioural approach to safety is based on an incomplete understanding of human psychology. To truly influence people and impact on the way people behave and engage with safety processes requires a deeper understanding of the motivations that drive our behaviour and more than that, an understanding of how to influence individuals and groups toward safety. This paper explores how current literature and research in the areas of cognitive psychology, social psychology, the psychology of change and neuroscience can add greatly to refining how we apply psychology to our safety systems, and go beyond the simple reward and punishment paradigm of behavioural based approaches. The presentation will shed light on what these theories mean for behavioural safety systems and provide safety leaders with insights to build an intrinsically motivated workforce who value safety. The use of psychological theories and concepts can provide a wealth of opportunity for improving safety performance and culture, if we move past a purely behavioural approach to one that embraces a more broad understanding of individual and group psychology. Copyright © 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Casey T.W.,Sentis | Krauss A.D.,Sentis
Safety Science | Year: 2013

Despite advancements in the science and practice of safety, workers continue to experience injuries. Nowhere are these human costs more apparent than in countries such as South Africa, where the fatality rate for underground miners is well above that in developed countries. In an effort to further improve workplace safety, scholars and practitioners have sought to identify additional predictors of individual safety performance. Two concepts show considerable promise: error management climate and safety communication. This study sought to investigate the relationships between two understudied constructs in safety research: error management climate and safety communication. We found that organizational error management climate predicted co-worker and supervisor safety support, and safety behavior. In addition, co-worker safety support and safety communication exhibited particularly strong relationships with safety performance as compared to the influence of supervisor safety support and upwards safety communication. Theoretical and practical implications for error management and safety communication are discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Bowen M.,Sentis
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE European HSE Conference and Exhibition 2013: Health, Safety, Environment and Social Responsibility in the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Industry | Year: 2013

The current thinking in the field of workplace safety distinguishes between process safety and person safety (i.e., the human factors). In actuality, people and their attitudes and behaviours are critical for process safety. If a process safety initiative is conceptualised similarly to other organisational interventions, people play a significant role in determining the success of a process safety initiative. To illustrate this concept, this presentation demonstrates how applying key concepts from the disciplines of Organisational Psychology (e.g., change management), Social Psychology (e.g., team dynamics), and Neuroscience (e.g., thinking patterns and habits) can make process safety initiatives more effective. Process safety is an important piece of the workplace safety jigsaw puzzle. By integrating this piece with the people piece, the effectiveness of process safety initiatives can be improved. This presentation will challenge attendees' current assumptions about the role of people in process safety. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Bowen M.,Sentis
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE Americas E and P Health, Safety, Security, and Environmental Conference 2013 | Year: 2013

Traditional Behavioral Based safety systems have been implemented in organizations and industries across the globe, with some success. Yet across organizations safety performance has reached a plateau and in many cases incidents and injuries are again on the rise. A key part of the reason is that a purely behavioral approach to safety is based on an incomplete understanding of human psychology. To truly influence people and impact on the way people behave and engage with safety processes requires a deeper understanding of the motivations that drive our behaviour and more than that, an understanding of how to influence individuals and groups toward safety. This paper explores how current literature and research in the areas of cognitive psychology, social psychology, the psychology of change and neuroscience can add greatly to refining how we apply psychology to our safety systems, and go beyond the simple reward and punishment paradigm of behavioural based approaches. The presentation will shed light on what these theories mean for behavioral safety systems and provide safety leaders with insights to build an intrinsically motivated workforce who value safety. The use of psychological theories and concepts can provide a wealth of opportunity for improving safety performance and culture, if we move past a purely behavioral approach to one that embraces a more broad understanding of individual and group psychology. Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engneers.


Web surveys are rapidly becoming standard issue in many researchers' toolkits; however, measurement error has been shown to affect web surveys to a greater extent than paper-and-pencil surveys (Couper, 2000; Manfreda & Vehovar, 2002). Principles of aesthetic design and social presence have been applied to web surveys to reduce the prevalence of such error with promising results, which were further investigated in this research. A sample of 181 first-year psychology undergraduate students participated in this study. Participants were randomly allocated to view one of eight web survey interfaces, which varied by aesthetic quality and social presence. Exploratory structural equation modeling using the partial least squares method revealed that classical aesthetic quality and social presence were both positively related to perceived ease of use of the web survey interface and positive state affect; social presence and perceived ease of use were positively related to trust in the web survey researcher; classical aesthetic quality was negatively related to negative state affect; and, expressive aesthetic quality was negatively related to perceived ease of use and positively related to positive state affect. Interestingly, expressive aesthetic quality was also positively related to negative state affect. These relationships between aesthetic quality and social presence should inform best practice web survey design recommendations, and future empirical work should extend and test the generalizability of these findings. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Krauss A.D.,Sentis | Casey T.,Sentis
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment 2014: The Journey Continues | Year: 2014

Frontline leaders (e.g., shift supervisors) serve the critical role of being the conduit of information and instruction from management to the frontline workforce. From a safety perspective, they translate the company's safety vision into how safety is actually executed in the crews. Even with this important role, it is rare that shift supervisors are empowered to be true safety leaders through developmental opportunities and the integration of safety leadership into their key performance indicators. For shift supervisors to take ownership of their crews) safety and be influential safety culture change agents, effective safety leadership needs to be clearly defined and assessed so that targeted interventions can be implemented. This paper describes an ongoing research program on safety leadership that was initiated in an attempt to define the dimensions of effective safety leadership for frontline leaders, create an assessment to measure frontline leaders) safety leadership, and inform evidence-based interventions to develop the safety leadership of specifically shift supervisors. Based on this research program, the paper addresses the following topics: The eight dimensions of safety leadership, grounded in safety science and organizational psychology. The distinction between safety compliance and safety citizenship as two safety performance domains impacted by safety leadership. The results of a research study examining the impact of safety leadership on important safety factors like team safety climate and safety performance. Potential intervention opportunites to develop the safety leadership skills of shift supervisors. Shift supervisors represent an excellent opportunity to foster strong positive safety climates within work crews and drive exemplary frontline safety performance. The research program described in this paper focuses specifically on how to turn shift supervisors into effective safety leaders. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


Casey T.W.,Sentis | Riseborough K.M.,Sentis | Krauss A.D.,Sentis
Accident Analysis and Prevention | Year: 2015

Growing international trade and globalization are increasing the cultural diversity of the modern workforce, which often results in migrants working under the management of foreign leadership. This change in work arrangements has important implications for occupational health and safety, as migrant workers have been found to be at an increased risk of injuries compared to their domestic counterparts. While some explanations for this discrepancy have been proposed (e.g., job differences, safety knowledge, and communication difficulties), differences in injury involvement have been found to persist even when these contextual factors are controlled for. We argue that employees' national culture may explain further variance in their safety-related perceptions and safety compliance, and investigate this through comparing the survey responses of 562 Anglo and Southern Asian workers at a multinational oil and gas company. Using structural equation modeling, we firstly established partial measurement invariance of our measures across cultural groups. Estimation of the combined sample structural model revealed that supervisor production pressure was negatively related to willingness to report errors and supervisor support, but did not predict safety compliance behavior. Supervisor safety support was positively related to both willingness to report errors and safety compliance. Next, we uncovered evidence of cultural differences in the relationships between supervisor production pressure, supervisor safety support, and willingness to report errors; of note, among Southern Asian employees the negative relationship between supervisor production pressure and willingness to report errors was stronger, and for supervisor safety support, weaker as compared to the model estimated with Anglo employees. Implications of these findings for safety management in multicultural teams within the oil and gas industry are discussed. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Krauss A.D.,Sentis | Casey T.,Sentis
Society of Petroleum Engineers - SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment 2014: The Journey Continues | Year: 2014

Though safety and operations impact each other, safety initiatives are often implemented in isolation from operational initiatives. For instance, safety issues are commonly examined separately from operational issues, sometimes even being pitted against each other (productivity vs. safety). With this research study, we examined a relatively new concept in organizational psychology and safety science, namely error management climate. We contend that error management climate creates an opportunity for aligning and improving both safety and operational performance. In many organizations, errors are perceived negatively, as essentially things to be avoided. As a result, they are often not reported formally or discussed openly. Nevertheless, research has shown that a positive error management climate is associated with exemplary safety performance. Error management climate refers to employees' perceptions of the extent to which the organization encourages communication about and management of errors and mistakes in the workplace. This paper describes a research study involving over 700 workers employed at an international oil and gas company. Via an employee survey, we investigated the error management climate of on-shore and off-shore natural gas sites and examined the relationships between error management climate and other safety concepts such as safety communication, safety climate, and safety performance. The paper addresses the following topics: • What is error management climate - the overall definition and its dimensions. • How is error management climate measured - computing both the level and strength of the climate. • What are the study results - differences in error management climate perceptions by job level, site, and climate dimension; the relationships between error management climate and safety predictors and safety performance outcomes. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible interventions that can be used to build a strong positive error management climate. Copyright 2014, Society of Petroleum Engineers.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: phys.org

Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, physicists Gael Sentís et al. have taken the change point problem to the quantum domain. "Our work sets an important landmark in quantum information theory by porting a fundamental tool of classical statistical analysis into a fully quantum setup," Sentis, at the University of the Basque Country in Bilbao, Spain, told Phys.org. "With an ever-growing number of promising applications of quantum technologies in all sorts of data processing, building a quantum statistical toolbox capable of dealing with real-world practical issues, of which change point detection is a prominent example, will be crucial. In our paper, we demonstrate the working principles of quantum change point detection and facilitate the grounds for further research on change points in applied scenarios." Although change point problems can deal with very complex situations, they can also be understood with the simple example of playing a game of Heads or Tails. This game begins with a fair coin, but at some unknown point in the game the coin is switched with a biased one. By statistically analyzing the results of each coin toss from the beginning, it's possible to determine the most likely point at which the coin was switched. Extending this problem to the quantum realm, the physicists looked at a quantum device that emits particles in a certain state, but at some unknown point the source begins to emit particles in a different state. Here the quantum change point problem can be understood as a problem of quantum state discrimination, since determining when the change in the source occurred is the same as distinguishing among all possible sequences of quantum states of the emitted particles. Physicists can determine the change point in this situation in two different ways: either by measuring the state of each particle as soon as it arrives at the detector (a "local measurement"), or by waiting until all of the particles have reached the detector and making a measurement at the very end (a "global measurement"). Although the local measurement method sounds appealing because it can potentially detect the change point as soon as it occurs without waiting for all of the particles to be emitted, the researchers found that global measurements outperform even the best local measurement strategies. The "catch" is that global measurements are more difficult to experimentally realize and require a quantum memory to store the quantum states as they arrive at the detector one by one. The local measurement methods don't require a quantum memory, and instead can be implemented using much simpler devices in sequence. Since global detection requires a quantum memory, the results show that change point detection is another of the many problems for which quantum methods outperform all classical ones. "We expected that global measurements would help, as coherent quantum operations tend to exploit genuinely quantum resources and generally outperform local operations in many information processing tasks," Sentis said. "However, this is a case-dependent advantage, and sometimes sophisticated and clever local strategies are enough to cover the gap. The fact that here there is a finite performance gap says something fundamental about change point detection in quantum scenarios." The results have potential applications in any situation that involves analyzing data collected over time. Change point detection is also often used to divide a data sample into subsamples that can then be analyzed individually. "The ability to accurately detect quantum change points has immediate impact on any process that requires careful control of quantum information," Sentis said. "It can be considered a quality testing device for any information processing task that requires (or produces) a sequence of identical quantum states. Applications may range from probing quantum optical fibers to boundary detection in solid state systems." In the future, the researchers plan on exploring the many applications of quantum change point detection. "We plan on extending our theoretical methods to deal with more realistic scenarios," Sentis said. "The possibilities are countless. A few examples of generalizations we are exploring are multiple change points, noisy quantum states, and detection of change points in optical setups." More information: Gael Sentís et al. "Quantum Change Point." Physical Review Letters. DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.150502 Also at arXiv:1605.01916 [quant-ph]

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