Nakaoka A.,Senri Kinran University |
Suto S.,Kyoto University |
Makimoto K.,Osaka University |
Yamakawa M.,Osaka University |
And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and other Dementias | Year: 2010
Wandering is a complex behavior, and defining wandering has been challenging. The current study used the integrated circuit (IC) tag monitoring system to describe the distance moved per day and the spatial movements of patients with dementia. The study was conducted in a 60-bed semiacute dementia care unit in a general hospital in Japan over a 3-month period in 2006. The distance moved per day, the numbers of pacing and lapping movements, and the proportions of the distance moved that was paced or lapped were tabulated in 23 patients diagnosed with dementia. The distance moved per day and the numbers of pacing and lapping movements varied greatly within and among study participants. The median distance moved per day was inversely correlated with participantsg age and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores (adjusted r2 =.34, P =.01). Consecutive lapping and pacing movements were rare patients with in Alzheimergs disease (AD), while 2 patients with frontotemporal dementia paced or lapped repeatedly.
Ogata S.,Osaka University |
Hayashi C.,Osaka City University |
Sugiura K.,Senri Kinran University |
Hayakawa K.,Osaka University
Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics | Year: 2015
Objective: We aimed to investigate the association between subjective memory complaints and higher-level functional capacity in either people with long-term care needs or those who require help to maintain functional capacity. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among participants aged 60 years or older. We measured subjective memory complaints, higher-level functional capacity, and depressive symptoms, and then estimated odds ratios (ORs) by multiple logistic analysis. Subjective memory complaints were used as the predictor variable, higher-level functional capacity as the outcome variable, and age, depressive symptoms, medical history of diabetes and hypertension, frequency of going out, falling within a year, and body mass index as possible confounders. We assessed higher-level functional capacity using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG) index of competence score ≤5 as a cut-off (which is associated with higher one-year mortality rates). Results: We conducted analyses using 501 people aged 60 years or older. Among women, subjective memory complaints were associated with impaired higher-level functional capacity after adjustment for age and depressive symptoms (OR. = 3.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.59-7.08). Among the men, subjective memory complaints were not significantly associated with impaired higher-level functional capacity after adjustment for age and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.91; 95% CI, 0.88-4.12). Conclusions: Subjective memory complaints among women can indicate impaired higher-level functional capacity and may suggest higher one-year mortality rates. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Itatani T.,Osaka University |
Shimizu S.,Osaka University |
Iwasa M.,Senri Kinran University |
Ohkusa Y.,Japan National Institute of Infectious Diseases |
Hayakawa K.,Osaka University
Vaccine | Year: 2013
Objective: The incidence of pertussis in adolescence and adulthood has been increasing, and pertussis outbreaks have occurred sporadically in Japan. The risk of intergenerational infection of pertussis is of concern. The aim of this study is to assess the cost-effectiveness of alternative vaccination programmes for replacing the conventional diphtheria-tetanus (DT) vaccine programme administered in adolescence, considering the risk of intergenerational infection. Methods: We examined the cost-effectiveness of 4 pertussis vaccination programmes: (1) one-time adolescent DT vaccination (DT); (2) one-time adolescent DT-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination; (3) one-time adolescent DTaP with decennial booster (DTaP. +. booster); and (4) one-time adolescent DTaP with additional vaccination targeted at parents with infants (additional DTaP for parents). We adapted a state-transition Markov model to estimate the costs and effectiveness of vaccination in the adolescent and adult cohorts and then considered intergenerational infection from adolescents/adults to infants. We assumed a societal perspective to estimate results and expressed these in terms of cost, life expectancy, quality-adjusted life expectancy, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Results: At an incidence of 25 per 100,000, the ICERs of the DTaP and additional DTaP for parents strategies were 3,576,072 JPY and 240,055,273 JPY, respectively, when intergenerational transmission of infection was considered. The ICER for the DTaP. +. booster strategy was dominated. Major conclusion: Alternative vaccination programmes are not currently cost-effective. If intergenerational infection considered, one-time adolescent DTaP vaccination is cost-effective. More accurate reports of pertussis incidence are required as the results of cost-effectiveness analyses of vaccination vary greatly depending on incidence. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Harada K.H.,Kyoto University |
Niisoe T.,Kyoto University |
Imanaka M.,Kyoto University |
Takahashi T.,Kyoto University |
And 28 more authors.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | Year: 2014
Radiation dose rates were evaluated in three areas neighboring a restricted area within a 20- to 50-km radius of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in August-September 2012 and projected to 2022 and 2062. Study participants wore personal dosimeters measuring external dose equivalents, almost entirely from deposited radionuclides (groundshine). External dose rate equivalents owing to the accident averaged 1.03, 2.75, and 1.66 mSv/y in the village of Kawauchi, the Tamano area of Soma, and the Haramachi area of Minamisoma, respectively. Internal dose rates estimated from dietary intake of radiocesium averaged 0.0058, 0.019, and 0.0088 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. Dose rates from inhalation of resuspended radiocesium were lower than 0.001 mSv/y. In 2012, the average annual doses from radiocesium were close to the average background radiation exposure (2 mSv/y) in Japan. Accounting only for the physical decay of radiocesium, mean annual dose rates in 2022 were estimated as 0.31, 0.87, and 0.53 mSv/y in Kawauchi, Tamano, and Haramachi, respectively. The simple and conservative estimates are comparable with variations in the background dose, and unlikely to exceed the ordinary permissible dose rate (1 mSv/y) for the majority of the Fukushima population. Health risk assessment indicates that post-2012 doses will increase lifetime solid cancer, leukemia, and breast cancer incidences by 1.06%, 0.03% and 0.28% respectively, in Tamano. This assessment was derived from short-term observation with uncertainties and did not evaluate the firstyear dose and radioiodine exposure. Nevertheless, this estimate provides perspective on the long-term radiation exposure levels in the three regions.
Hagimoto A.,Senri Kinran University |
Nakamura M.,Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion |
Morita T.,Hiroshima University |
Masui S.,Osaka Medical Center for Health Science and Promotion |
Oshima A.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
Addiction | Year: 2010
Aim To examine the percentage of Japanese adult smokers who make quit attempts and succeed in smoking cessation over a 1-year period, and to identify predictors of attempts to stop and successful smoking cessation. Design and setting This study used Ipsos JSR Company's access panel, whose sampling framework is based on the Basic Resident Register in Japan. We tracked and monitored a selected sample of smokers who were at least 20 years of age through a baseline postal questionnaire survey in 2005 and a follow-up survey 1 year later. Participants The original response rate was 72.1% (1874 of 2600 smokers). There were 1627 current smokers in the baseline survey, and of those, 1358 were followed-up 1 year later. Findings Among the current smokers, 23.0% reported that they had attempted to quit smoking at least once in the past year. Of those who made quit attempts, 25.6% had achieved 1-week abstinence successfully and 13.5% reported having achieved sustained 6-month abstinence successfully at the time of the follow-up survey. The predictors associated with quit attempts were non-daily smoker, higher motivation to quit and previous attempts to stop smoking. Among smokers who made quit attempts, only 13.5% used nicotine replacement therapy. Higher nicotine dependence was associated with lower probability of success in quitting. Conclusions Japanese smokers attempt to quit at a lower rate than smokers in the United Kingdom and United States, but factors that predict attempts (primarily markers of motivation) and success of attempts (primarily dependence) are similar to those found in western samples. © 2009 Society for the Study of Addiction.