61st International Astronautical Congress 2010, IAC 2010 | Year: 2010
The paper will evolve about the central idea that space exploration and exploitation will be mandatory to maintain a sustainable growth, from production of energy to exoresources exploitation. To do so mankind faces four major obstacles: the first one is the lack of adequate technical means to leave the gravitational well of Earth, and the rigors of space weather. The second one is the perception by the general public (and hence by the rulers of the world) of the enormous and often understood as excessive, costs of space activities, which has been a permanent legend since the beginning of the space era. The third is our space "corpus juris" with its central piece, the Outer Space Treaty, that by itself, and as it is understood today, is more an obstacle than a tool to facilitate space activities. The fourth is of course the different (although legitimate) space agendas of the space powers, without understanding that space exploration belongs to us all, and shall be done in such way. The paper will explore this four points, giving floor to further discussions as to allow the general public in general, but obviously the political leaders too, to appreciate the complexity of space exploration and exploitation, and the need to have a private effort (not against, but in addition to the public one) to drive it, like it was in the XXth Century with aviation. Space activities will succeed only under an umbrella of affirmative, positive, legislation and in a economical ambiance that encourages its development.
Ruiz D.A.R.,National Autonomous University of Mexico |
Transactions - Geothermal Resources Council | Year: 2015
The study and analysis of rock samples from wells drilled in the Cerritos Colorados geothermal field (Mexico) allowed determining the distribution and zonation of alteration minerals in the system. Reflectance spectroscopy in the short-wave infrared range (SWIR) was used on the samples (cores and cuttings) to identify hydrothermal alteration minerals by comparing their spectra against those given in a US Geological Survey database. The main features used were common absorption peaks, shape of the spectrum, percent reflectance and wavelength, which provided guidance to identify mineral suites. The zoning and geochemical distributions of the identified minerals in the system, in general correlated with observed lithology and hydrothermal alteration. As a result, four main alteration associations (argillic, phyllic or sericitic, propylitic and advanced argillic) were defined, which reflected the temperature, pressure, fluid chemistry, and other conditions influencing the presence of characteristic mineral associations. © Copyright (2015) by Geothermal Resources Council All rights reserved.
Duatis J.,SENER |
Angulo C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia |
Puig V.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
IFAC Proceedings Volumes (IFAC-PapersOnline) | Year: 2015
This paper introduces the architecture of the Fault Analysis Software Tool (FAST). The tool identifies analytical redundancies from a reduced process description and use them to provide fault detection and isolation (FDI). In this form, the automated supervision of industrial processes is simplified. FAST can operate either stand alone in simulation mode (off-line) by reading the measured values from data files, or on-line connected to the process plant through an OPC interface. The OPC interface allows the tool to be connected to almost any process which features a SCADA system for supervisory control. When running in online mode, each process is monitored by a software agent. In case of a fault, FAST will detect it and will indicate the faulty device to the SCADA. The SCADA can display and record the fault allowing the implementation of early countermeasures. For some faults, FAST can also automatically reconfigure the process to temporarily avoid an emergency stop. This functionality is specially useful in systems with high level of autonomy, difficult access or for which maintenance operations cannot be immediately implemented. The objective of FAST is to provide to the industry a tool which can be used with a moderate level of complexity to apply FDI on top of the traditional process supervision. © 2015, IF AG (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perez Fernandez R.,SENER |
Advances in Engineering Software | Year: 2015
A natural consequence of the extended use of CAD systems for the design and production of any kind of vessel is its use in Virtual Reality environments, mainly because now it has become an accessible technology. Virtual Reality is extended in every industry, in every sector, at any level. Important improvements both in software and hardware have had an important impact in its use in the shipbuilding industry, where it is necessary to handle complex ship 3D models with huge amount of data. So, efficiency is the base condition in the Virtual Reality navigation around a vessel. To enhance it, there are three important factors that play a fundamental role. The first one is having an appropriate CAD system with all the information of the ship in a single data base. The second important issue is to have a viewer, which is a tool that allows the management of the 3D model to be used in Virtual Reality environments. No need to say that a good integration between the viewer and the CAD system will be translated into more functionality and better performance. Finally, the third important player is hardware, which makes possibility the Virtual Reality navigation in many different environments. This paper describes first of all different efficient uses of Virtual Reality in the shipbuilding industry, taking in consideration all the agents involved and describing in particular the advantages for any of them. Regarding the software requirements, it will be described in particular the new FVIEWER, developed by SENER for the Virtual Reality navigation and design review and based on the FORAN system. From the hardware side, it will be described some of the most relevant and feasible applications of the Virtual Reality, taking in consideration potential uses and accessible technology in the market. The future of the Virtual Reality in shipbuilding will be explained after that. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Olmos Marin A.,NAVANTIA S.A. |
RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects - International Conference on Computer Applications in Shipbuilding 2011, Papers | Year: 2011
The evolution of the computer-aided design tools have moved from custom-made applications, covering separate aspects with little connection to the surrounding items, to COTS fully integrated global solutions that provide almost complete information for all the stages, not only during the design phase, but for the manufacturing, mounting and even the complete ship life-cycle management. If a particular aspect must be highlighted, then integration is the word. Electrical design is, no doubt on that, subject to benefit from the development of such integration. Submarines are considered among the most difficult vessel designs, compared only with space crafts in terms of complexity, number of occurrences and integration between systems. It is, therefore, rocket science, so any help from the state-of-the-art computer tools is welcome. Along the present paper, some figures taken from the Spanish MOD's S80 class submarine will subscribe this statement. ©2011: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
Veenman J.,Sener |
Scherer C.W.,University of Stuttgart |
Koroglu H.,Chalmers University of Technology
European Journal of Control | Year: 2016
The integral quadratic constraints (IQC) approach facilitates a systematic and efficient analysis of robust stability and performance for uncertain dynamical systems based on linear matrix inequality (LMI) optimization. With the intention to make the IQC analysis tools more accessible to control scientists and engineers, we present in this paper a tutorial overview in three main parts: (i) the general setup and the basic IQC theorem, (ii) an extensive survey on the formulation and parametrization of multipliers based on LMI constraints, and (iii) a detailed illustration of how the tools can be applied. © 2016 European Control Association.
Alonso V.,SENER |
Gonzalez C.,SENER |
RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects - International Conference Warship 2013: Minor Warships | Year: 2013
At early design stages is where most part of the decisions and costs are compromised, and where 2D drawings are still widely used. The idea of using a single tool for the whole process, starting with the creation of a 3D model at early design stages has been profusely required in naval shipbuilding. It is not easy to convince the agents involved about the advantage of having an increased work at early phases although that will be largely reused downstream. This paper describes in detail about the benefit of changing the process of minor warships design, by means of using an advanced CAD tool from the early stages, describing how it will be an advantage in terms of quality and costs. The most remarkable benefits are the data integrity and the avoidance of long design periods and cost increases due to errors, rework and inconsistencies. The main challenges refer to the integration of all stages and disciplines thanks to the use of a single CAD tool that must be effective at all stages, including those in basic design such us the quick definition of the 3D model as well as in the transfer of a simplified model to the analysis and calculation tools. This paper describes SENER findings in minor warships, as an example of engineering work, by means of an approach based on the use of FORAN, a shipbuilding oriented CAD System. © 2013: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
Perez R.,SENER |
Gonzalez C.,SENER |
Sanchez F.,SENER |
RINA, Royal Institution of Naval Architects - Warship 2015: Future Surface Vessels, Papers | Year: 2015
The proper application of the modularization concepts to accommodation and common spaces demands a complex exercise of coordination among the design of all the systems and disciplines present in such spaces. The analysis of the concept carried out in this paper has strengthened the idea of the necessity to face the modular design approach in the early stages of the design. This is particularly important in the accommodation and common spaces, where the benefit of the increase of the use of the modular solutions is even higher than in other parts of the warship. In this respect the elements associated to the detail 3D model of the standard modules may be used in all kinds of 2D and 3D drawings as well as in reports for further use in production. All the attributes and technological information given to the elements would also be available to be shared with other applications handling other parts of the project: planning, material management and others. The standard module, once designed and saved could be used, instanced, in the 3D model of the warship as many times as required. Modern warships comprise large extends of equipment for propulsion and ship operation which consists of mechanical parts, electronics, tubes, cables, switchboards etc. Machinery equipment contributes significantly to the performance of the warship as well as to material and personnel cost. Modularization can help to reduce the risk of failure by using pretested equipment, to reduce purchasing cost as well as to pre-manufacture machinery units in the workshop. The aim of this paper is to develop concepts and design solutions for modular machinery space, on-board automation and warship equipment. In addition methods for modular design are developed and finally the solutions are demonstrated by practical solutions. The machinery spaces form about 15 % of the total outfitting work in a warship of which at least 40 % is still done on-board the ships. The aim is to shift at least 50 % of this work to workshop. © 2015: The Royal Institution of Naval Architects.
Maria J.L.H.,SENER |
Herbert J.H.,Technical University of Madrid
Revista de Obras Publicas | Year: 2015
It is a well-known fact that the same safety factor may correspond to several different failure possibilities. In this way and in order to avoid the presence of apparently safe designs that may harbour great uncertainties, it is necessary to quantify the variability of the results of support verification calculations. The present article proposes a simple method based on the application of the point estimation method to finite element calculation and the detailed analysis of the results.
Valencia O.F.,SENER |
Gomez-Escalonilla F.J.,Airbus |
Garijo D.,SENER |
Diez J.L.,Technical University of Madrid
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science | Year: 2011
In the recent decades, meshless methods (MMs), like the element-free Galerkin method (EFGM), have been widely studied and interesting results have been reached when solving partial differential equations. However, such solutions show a problem around boundary conditions, where the accuracy is not adequately achieved. This is caused by the use of moving least squares or residual kernel particle method methods to obtain the shape functions needed in MM, since such methods are good enough in the inner of the integration domains, but not so accurate in boundaries. This way, Bernstein curves, which are a partition of unity themselves, can solve this problem with the same accuracy in the inner area of the domain and at their boundaries. © Authors 2011.