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Saint Paul, NY, United States

Bechert U.,Oregon State University | Christensen J.M.,Oregon State University | Poppenga R.,University of Pennsylvania | Poppenga R.,University of California at Davis | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered terbinafine hydrochloride based on 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg single- as well as multiple-dosage trials in order to calculate dosing requirements for potential treatment of aspergillosis in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus). Ten adult African penguins were used in each of these trials, with a 2-wk washout period between trials. Mean plasma concentrations of terbinafine peaked in approximately 4 hrs at 0.11 ± 0.017 g/ml (mean ± SD) following administration of 3 mg/kg terbinafine, while 7 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg dosages resulted in peak plasma concentrations of 0.37 ± 0.105 and 0.33 ± 0.054 g/ml, respectively. The volume of distribution increased with increasing dosages, being 37 ± 28.5, 40 ± 28.1, and 52 ± 18.6 mg/L for 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively. The mean half-life was biphasic with initial terminal half-life (t) values of 9.9 ± 4.5, 17.2 ± 4.9 and 16.9 ± 5.4 hrs, for 3, 7, and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively. A rapid first elimination phase was followed by a slower second phase, and final elimination was estimated to be 136 ± 9.7 and 131 ± 9.9 hrs, for 7 and 15 mg/kg doses, respectively. Linearity was demonstrated for area under the curve but not for peak plasma concentrations for the three dosages used. Calculations based on pharmacokinetic parameter values indicate that a 15 mg/kg terbinafine q24h dosage regimen would result in steady-state trough plasma concentrations above the minimum inhibitory concentration (0.81.6 g/ml), and this dosage is recommended as a potential treatment option for aspergillosis in penguins. However, additional research is required to determine both treatment efficacy and safety. © 2010 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Divincenti Jr. L.,Seneca Park Zoo | Priest H.,Cornell University | Walker K.J.,Seneca Park Zoo | Wyatt J.D.,Seneca Park Zoo | Dittman D.,U.S. Geological Survey
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2013

Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source


Wyatt J.,Seneca Park Zoo | Wyatt J.,University of Rochester | Divincenti Jr. L.,Seneca Park Zoo | Divincenti Jr. L.,University of Rochester
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

Elephant ear mites, not previously described in North America, were eradicated in two African elephants (Loxodonta africana) after six otic instillations of ivermectin at 2-wk intervals. The microscopic examination of a clear, mucoid discharge collected from the external ear canals of two wild-born African elephants housed in a New York State zoo for 25 yr revealed live mites (Loxoaneotus bassoni). The cytologic examination demonstrated no evidence of inflammation or infection. Both elephants were asymptomatic with normal hemograms and serum chemistry panels. A diagnosis of otoacariasis was made. Each elephant was treated six times with 5 ml of 1% ivermectin syrup instilled in each ear canal once every 2 wk. Microscopic examinations of clear mucus collected from each elephant's ear canals 9 days after the first instillation of ivermectin were negative for any life stages of ear mites. Microscopic examinations of mucus collected from both elephants' ear canals at 6, 11, and 16 wk, as well as annually post-treatment for 7 yr, confirmed eradication of the ear mites. The L. bassoni ear mite was first identified in the external ear canals of wild, asymptomatic, lesion-free, African elephants culled in Kruger National Park in South Africa. However, a new species in the same genus of mites (Loxoanoetus lenae) was identified at the necropsy of an 86-yr-old Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) living in a circus in Australia. The autopsy revealed a marked, ballooning distension of bone around the left external acoustic meatus, suggestive of mite-induced otitis externa, as seen in cattle infested with ear mites (Raillieta auris). Elephant health care providers should identify the prevalence of, and consider treatment of, elephants in their care infested with ear mites, given the possible risk for adverse health effects. Copyright © 2012 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

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